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基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学

 
 
 

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路德的十字架神学(Carl Trueman)  

2010-12-01 12:00:00|  分类: 改革宗神学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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路德的十字架神学
Luther's Theology of the Cross


by Carl Trueman
作者:卡尔·楚曼
译者:唐兴
英文原文载于:http://www.opc.org/new_horizons/NH05/10b.html
本文中文版权归归正网络翻译团契RITF(诚之按)所有;
原文链接:http://ritf.chinesereformed.org/?p=66)


绝对没有人会想到,马丁路德在1517年10月为反对赎罪劵所发表的九十五条提纲,会启动宗教改革运动。文件本身是为一場大学的辩论提出框架。路德只是要对赎罪劵的实施提出修正,并非要废除它。他当然不是为散播很广的神学和教会的改革提出一个议程。
No one could have expected that the Reformation would be launched by Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses against Indulgences in October 1517. The document itself simply proposed the framework for a university debate. Luther was arguing only for a revision of the practice of indulgences, not its abolition. He was certainly not offering an agenda for widespread theological and ecclesiastical reform.

其实,在1517年9月4日,在驳斥经院神学的论述中,他曾提出更具争议性的议题:他批判中世纪神学几个世纪以来所使用的方法。但这个论述在毫无争议下就通过了。的确,从人的角度看,这是许多外在因素一种特殊的结合:是这些社会,经济和政治因素,使得九十五条提纲成为宗教改革的导火线。
Indeed, he had already said much more controversial things in his Disputation against Scholastic Theology of September 4, 1517, in which he critiqued the whole way in which medieval theology had been done for centuries. That disputation, however, passed without a murmur. Indeed, humanly speaking, it was only the unique combination of external factors—social, economic, and political—that made the later disputation the spark that lit the Reformation fuse.

海德堡的辩论
The Heidelberg Disputation


然而,导火线一旦被点着了,教会就作了一个致命的决定:他们把此事件看为是微不足道的地方性事件,而让路德所属的奥古斯丁社团去处理。社团决定要在1528年4月于海德堡召开会议,并且要路德发表一系列关于他的神学的提纲,供他的弟兄们评估。就是在这里,那平淡的九十五条提纲给予路德一个机会,可以清晰的阐述他先前在9月份所发表关于经院神学的论述。
Once the fuse had been lit, however, the church made a fatal error: she allowed the Augustinian Order, to which Luther belonged, to deal with the problem as if it were a minor local difficulty. There was to be a meeting of the Order in Heidelberg in April 1518, and Luther was asked to present a series of theses outlining his theology, so that it could be assessed by his brethren. It was here, then, that the relatively bland Ninety-Five Theses gave Luther an important opportunity to articulate the theology that he had expressed in his September Disputation.

海德堡辩论的重要性有二:首先,在那里出现了另外一位宗教改革的巨人:马丁?布塞珥(Martin Bucer)——从耶鲁大学的神学教授,转变成为斯特司堡的宗教改革家。他具有宽广的智识和对教会前途的眼光。布塞珥对那一代的改教者具有深重的影响力,不下于约翰?加尔文。路德于1517年在海德堡的论述,使布塞珥首次体验到改教思想。然而,当布塞珥对路德对于教会的经院神学所作的攻击感到惊讶时,他却忽略了路德所宣讲的神学中心思想。这就是海德堡辩论的第二个重要性:十字架的神学。
The Heidelberg Disputation is significant for two things. First, there was at least one other future Reformation giant present. This was Martin Bucer, the Reformer of Strasbourg, who would end his days as professor of divinity at Cambridge. A man of vast intellect and wide ecumenical vision, Bucer was to have a profound influence on a generation of Reformers, not least John Calvin. And his first taste of Reformation thinking was provided by Luther at Heidelberg in 1517. Yet, while Bucer left the disputation marveling at how Luther had attacked what the church had become, he missed the theological core of what Luther was saying. This is the second point of importance: the theology of the cross.

十字架的神学
The Theology of the Cross


在辩论快要结束时,路德提出了一些(路德式)的议题,这些议题看起来似乎是荒谬、暧昧难解的:
Toward the end of the disputation, Luther offered some theses which seem (in typical Luther fashion) nonsensical, or at least obscure:

19. 那些人,把属神的无形事物当作是在实际已经发生的事情上,可以清楚看见的(罗1:20),不配称为神学家。
20. 透过苦难和十字架,来理解属神的有形而明显的事物的人,才配称为神学家。
21. 荣耀的神学家称良善为邪恶,称邪恶为良善。十字架的神学家把事物看为实际上当看的。
22. 有一种智慧把属神无形事物的运作,看为是人所能理解的,这种智慧是极为傲慢、盲目,和僵硬的。

19. That person does not deserve to be called a theologian who looks upon the invisible things of God as though they were clearly perceptible in those things which have actually happened [Rom. 1:20].
20. He deserves to be called a theologian, however, who comprehends the visible and manifest things of God seen through suffering and the cross.
21. A theologian of glory calls evil good and good evil. A theologian of the cross calls the thing what it actually is.
22. That wisdom which sees the invisible things of God in works as perceived by man is completely puffed up, blinded, and hardened.

这些陈述实际上包含了路德神学的中心思想,如果领悟到他所用的那些难懂的词汇所要表明的意思时,它们不但照明了路德神学教义的内容,并且清楚的指出他认为神学家所应该具有的思想模式。他的确是把保罗在哥林多前书的爆炸性论述,发展成为一个完整的神学议题。
These statements actually encapsulate the heart of Luther's theology, and a good grasp of what he means by the obscure terms and phrases they contain sheds light not just on the doctrinal content of his theology, but also on the very way that he believed theologians should think. Indeed, he is taking Paul's explosive argument from 1 Corinthians and developing it into a full theological agenda.

路德论述的中心思想,是讲到人不应该推测神是如何预见祂要向那些人启示祂自己。因此,他把神的自我启示看作是所有神学的通则。可能历史上所有的异端都会同意这一点,因为所有的神学,不论是自然的,人理性的,文化的,或其他的神学,都预先假设了神的启示。
At the heart of his argument is his notion that human beings should not speculate about who God is or how he acts in advance of actually seeing whom he has revealed himself to be. Thus, Luther sees God's revelation of himself as axiomatic to all theology. Now, there probably is not a heretic in history who would not agree with that, because all theology presupposes the revelation of God, whether in nature, human reason, culture, or whatever.

但是,路德对神的启示具有非常狭窄的看法。神在道成肉身中向人启示出祂自己对人的怜悯,当祂在人类血肉之体中显明祂自己时,其最高的启示就是在各各他的十字架上。路德有时候的确把基督的钉十字架称为是“神的背”(God's backside):这是讲到神与人理性的思考是相互矛盾的。
Luther, however, had a dramatically restrictive view of revelation. God revealed himself as merciful to humanity in the Incarnation, when he manifested himself in human flesh, and the supreme moment of that revelation was on the cross at Calvary. Indeed, Luther sometimes referred enigmatically to Christ crucified as "God's backside"—the point at which God appeared to be the very contradiction of all that one might reasonably have anticipated him to be.

这样,“荣耀神学的神学家”(theologians of glor)就是那些根据他们对神的期望(神像什么样子)来建造他们的神学的人——但是,不让人感到意外的是,他们使神看起来就像他们自己。然而,“十字架神学的神学家”(theologians of the cross)乃是那些根据神在被钉十字架上的基督裡对自己的启示,来建造他们的神学的人。
The "theologians of glory," therefore, are those who build their theology in the light of what they expect God to be like—and, surprise, surprise, they make God to look something like themselves. The "theologians of the cross," however, are those who build their theology in the light of God's own revelation of himself in Christ hanging on the cross.

含义
Implications


这种立场具有革命性的含义。首先,路德要求所有神学的词汇,都要在十字架的理解下被修正。以“能力”(power)这个名词为例,当荣耀神学的神学家在圣经中读到神的大能,或在他们的神学中用到此名词时,他们会认为神的大能与人的力量类似。他们以为可以借着把可想象的最大能力无限扩大,来理解神的大能。按照对十字架的理解,这样解读与神的大能的真义完全相反。神的大能乃是在十字架的软弱上被启示出来,因为在邪恶力量和败坏属地的权威的攻击下,才显明了耶稣征服死亡和战胜所有邪恶力量的神的大能。所以,当基督徒讲到神的大能,或是教会和基督徒的能力时,都应当根据十字架的意义来理解:这是一种隐藏在软弱下的能力
The implications of this position are revolutionary. For a start, Luther is demanding that the entire theological vocabulary be revised in light of the cross. Take for example the word power. When theologians of glory read about divine power in the Bible, or use the term in their own theology, they assume that it is analogous to human power. They suppose that they can arrive at an understanding of divine power by magnifying to an infinite degree the most powerful thing of which they can think. In light of the cross, however, this understanding of divine power is the very opposite of what divine power is all about. Divine power is revealed in the weakness of the cross, for it is in his apparent defeat at the hands of evil powers and corrupt earthly authorities that Jesus shows his divine power in the conquest of death and of all the powers of evil. So when a Christian talks about divine power, or even about church or Christian power, it is to be conceived of in terms of the cross—power hidden in the form of weakness.

对路德而言,同样的方式必须被应用在其他的神学用语上。举例来说,神的智慧是在愚拙的十字架上被显明出来。谁能发明这种愚拙的观念:神取了人的肉身,代表罪人死于可怕的苦难;为了要洁凈罪人,神使自己担当他们的罪;为了要兴起有新生命的子民,祂自己却顺服至死?我们可以继续以同样的看法来理解其他的名词:生命,祝福,圣洁,和公义。每一个名词都必须按照十字架的真理加以重新思考。这些都是重要的神学观念;人很容易就把他自己本身的印象植入其中;这些神学观念都必须被放在十字架的亮光下重新铸造。
For Luther, the same procedure must be applied to other theological terms. For example, God's wisdom is demonstrated in the foolishness of the cross. Who would have thought up the foolish idea of God taking human flesh in order to die a horrendous death on behalf of sinners who had deliberately defied him, or God making sinners pure by himself becoming sin for them, or God himself raising up a people to newness of life by himself submitting to death? We could go on, looking at such terms as life, blessing, holiness, and righteousness. Every single one must be reconceived in the light of the cross. All are important theological concepts; all are susceptible to human beings casting them in their own image; and all must be recast in the light of the cross.

这样的洞察力是路德思想的要素之一,它赋予他的神学一种内在的逻辑和统一性。以路德对称义的了解为例,神宣告信徒在祂的眼中被看为是义人,不是借着任何原有的和本质上的义(任何信徒本身所成就或取得的),而是基于一种外来的义(alien righteousness),就是基督的义,这义是在信徒以外的义。这难道不是奇特不寻常,但却是神的十字架的奇妙逻辑吗?人的确是不义,的确是被罪所污染,却被神宣告是圣洁和义的!这样的真理是人的逻辑所无法理解,但是按照十字架的逻辑却是十分合理的。
This insight is one of the factors in Luther's thinking that gives his theology an inner logic and coherence. Take, for example, his understanding of justification, whereby God declares the believer to be righteous in his sight, not by virtue of any intrinsic righteousness (anything that the believer has done or acquired), but on the basis of an alien righteousness, the righteousness of Christ that remains external to the believer. Is this not typical of the strange but wonderful logic of the God of the cross? The person who is really unrighteous, really mired in sin, is actually declared by God to be pure and righteous! Such a truth is incomprehensible to human logic, but makes perfect sense in light of the logic of the cross.

神爱那些不可爱和不义的人,是在他们有任何爱神的倾向之先,这又如何解释呢?对于荣耀神学的神学家们而言,他们认为神就像他们自己和其他的人一样,只对那些可爱良善的人,或是那些赢得他们好感的人才会有所回应。但是,十字架告诉我们,神却不是那样:与人认为神会如何作相反,神并不要求其所爱的对象先爱祂;祂在先的爱会创造爱,没有预设的条件。十字架丑陋残暴的戏码,启示出神那令人惊奇,出乎意料之外的温柔和美丽。
And what of the idea of a God who comes down and loves the unlovely and the unrighteous before the objects of his love have any inclination to love him or do good? Such is incomprehensible to the theologians of glory, who assume that God is like them, like other human beings, and thus only responds to those who are intrinsically attractive or good, or who first earn his favor in some way. But the cross shows that God is not like that: against every assumption that human beings might make about who God is and how he acts, he requires no prior loveliness in the objects of his love; rather, his prior love creates that loveliness without laying down preconditions. Such a God is revealed with amazing and unexpected tenderness and beauty in the ugly and violent drama of the cross.

基督徒伦理和经历的关键
The Key to Christian Ethics and Experience


路德并没有把十字架的神学限制在神客观的启示上。他也把它看为是理解基督徒伦理和经历的关键。两者共同的根基是信心:对不信的人,十字架是荒唐无意义的;从表面上看,它是被神咒诅的人受击打污秽的死亡。不信的心对十字架有这样的解释:希腊人认为它是愚拙的;犹太人认为它是讨厌的,完全取决于你认为罪是智力上的傲慢,还是道德上的自义。唯有被信心打开的心思才能认识到十字架的真实意义。神的启示隐藏于外在的形体中。信心是神所赐的礼物,它不是人类心智本身的能力。
Luther does not restrict the theology of the cross to an objective revelation of God. He also sees it as the key to understanding Christian ethics and experience. Foundational to both is the role of faith: to the eyes of unbelief, the cross is nonsense; it is what it seems to be—the crushing, filthy death of a man cursed by God. That is how the unbelieving mind interprets the cross—foolishness to Greeks and an offence to Jews, depending on whether your chosen sin is intellectual arrogance or moral self-righteousness. To the eyes opened by faith, however, the cross is seen as it really is. God is revealed in the hiddenness of the external form. And faith is understood to be a gift of God, not a power inherent in the human mind itself.

这种信心的原则让信徒了解到他应该如何去作。基督是大君王和大祭司,信徒与祂联合,也是君王和祭司。事实上,君王和祭司在信徒身上所扮演的角色,就如同基督一般:借着受苦和自我牺牲服事他人。信徒借着做每个人的仆人,成为所有事物的君王;信徒借着顺服于所有人之下而全然自由。就如基督借着在十字架上的死,彰显了祂的王权和大能,信徒为了他人的益处而无条件的舍己。我们应该像小基督一般对待我们的邻舍,这样做会使我们认识到我们神儿女身份的真实性。
This principle of faith then allows the believer to understand how he or she is to behave. United to Christ, the great king and priest, the believer too is both a king and a priest. But these offices are not excuses for lording it over others. In fact, kingship and priesthood are to be enacted in the believer as they are in Christ—through suffering and self-sacrifice in the service of others. The believer is king of everything by being a servant of everyone; the believer is completely free by being subject to all. As Christ demonstrated his kingship and power by death on the cross, so the believer does so by giving himself or herself unconditionally to the aid of others. We are to be, as Luther puts it, little Christs to our neighbors, for in so doing we find our true identity as children of God.

这样的论述非常具有爆发性,它为基督徒权柄下了一个全新的定义。举例而言,长老并不是那些使用他们的权力欺压他人,用他们的地位和财富或学位来强化自己意见的人。真正的基督徒长老是奉献他整个生命来服事他人的人。而这种服事是痛苦的,困难的和卑微的,因为他这样做就彰显了像基督一样的权柄,这就是基督自己借着祂肉身的生命和在各各他的十字架上所彰显出的权柄。
This argument is explosive, giving a whole new understanding of Christian authority. Elders, for example, are not to be those renowned for throwing their weight around, for badgering others, and for using their position or wealth or credentials to enforce their own opinions. No, the truly Christian elder is the one who devotes his whole life to the painful, inconvenient, and humiliating service of others, for in so doing he demonstrates Christlike authority, the kind of authority that Christ himself demonstrated throughout his incarnate life and supremely on the cross at Calvary.

借着苦难得祝福
Great Blessings through Great Suffering


十字架神学对信徒的意义并不止于此。神按照十字架的模式来处理和对待借着信心与基督联合的信徒。简单的说,大祝福来自于大苦难。
The implications of the theology of the cross for the believer do not stop there. The cross is paradigmatic for how God will deal with believers who are united to Christ by faith. In short, great blessing will come through great suffering.

对生活在富裕西方的人,这样的观念是难以接受的。举例来说,许多年前我在某教会教导这个主题,我指出十字架不只是讲到关于代赎,更讲到神如何对待和处理祂所爱的人。聚会结束后,有人反驳我说:路德的十字架神学没有注重到十字架和复活,是代表咒诅被逆转的开始,因此我们应该期待祝福。专注在受苦和软弱上,就忽视了基督的职事在末世的重要性。
This point is hard for those of us in the affluent West to swallow. For example, some years ago I lectured at a church gathering on this topic and pointed out that the cross was not simply an atonement, but a revelation of how God deals with those whom he loves. I was challenged afterwards by an individual who said that Luther's theology of the cross did not give enough weight to the fact that the cross and resurrection marked the start of the reversal of the curse, and that great blessings should thus be expected; to focus on suffering and weakness was therefore to miss the eschatological significance of Christ's ministry.

当然,这人未能彻底的运用路德的十字架神学。他所言虽然是对的,却未能按照十字架来理解其所言。是的,路德会同意咒诅的逆转,但这逆转被显明出来是因为良善的缘故,完全颠覆了邪恶。如果基督的十字架,也就是人类历史最邪恶的行为,能够与神的旨意一致,并且成为击败此邪恶的根源。那么,其他的邪恶也会因良善的发生而被颠覆。
Of course, this individual had failed to apply Luther's theology of the cross as thoroughly as he should have done. All that he said was true, but he failed to understand what he was saying in light of the cross. Yes, Luther would agree, the curse is being rolled back, but that rollback is demonstrated by the fact that, thanks to the cross, evil is now utterly subverted in the cause of good. If the cross of Christ, the most evil act in human history, can be in line with God's will and be the source of the decisive defeat of the very evil that caused it, then any other evil can also be subverted to the cause of good.

不止如此,如果基督的死是一种祝福,那么信徒所经历的任何邪恶,都也可以成为祝福。咒诅的确被逆转;祝福的确要流溢;但谁能宣称这些祝福必须要与富裕美国的热望和期待互相吻合呢?对路德而言,十字架教导我们:基督是地上最受祝福的人,祂启示其所受的祝福正是出于祂的受苦和死亡。如果那是神对待祂的爱子的方法,那些借着信心与基督联合的人,难道有任何权利有不同的期待吗?
More than that, if the death of Christ is mysteriously a blessing, then any evil that the believer experiences can be a blessing too. Yes, the curse is reversed; yes, blessings will flow; but who declared that these blessings have to be in accordance with the aspirations and expectations of affluent America? The lesson of the cross for Luther is that the most blessed person upon earth, Jesus Christ himself, was revealed as blessed precisely in his suffering and death. And if that is the way that God deals with his beloved son, have those who are united to him by faith any right to expect anything different?

有些人对邪恶的看法是不同于路德的,像“坏事发生在好人身上”的犹太拉比作者:哈罗德·库希那。路德会说,这些事的确会发生,因为这是神对信徒的祝福。神是借着祂在信徒心中奇异的工作(与我们所期待的相反)成就祂的善工;祂的确借着明显的咒诅达到其祝福的目的。
This casts the problem of evil in a somewhat different light for Luther than, say, for Harold Kushner, the rabbi who wrote When Bad Things Happen to Good People. They happen, Luther would say, because that is how God blesses them. God accomplishes his work in the believer by doing his alien work (the opposite of what we expect); he really blesses by apparently cursing.

当我们领悟到历史上最大的罪恶:基督的死,是三一真神玄妙深奥的旨意,却未使其与道德的罪有所关联,这样就解决了那个古老的问题:免除全能的神对邪恶的责任。邪恶问题的解答不在于要找到它的源点,因为它没有被启示出来。在十字架的时刻,邪恶就很清楚地被良善全然的推翻毁灭。因为基督的十字架,所以罗马书8章28节就成为真实的:如果神能够使极大的邪恶逆转成为极大的祝福,祂就更能使那些玷污人类历史的罪恶,从个人的不幸到跨国的大灾难,都转变为了达到祂良善的目的。
Indeed, when it is grasped that the death of Christ, the greatest crime in history, was itself willed in a deep and mysterious way by the triune God, yet without involving God in any kind of moral guilt, we see the solution to the age-old problem of absolving an all-powerful God of responsibility for evil. The answer to the problem of evil does not lie in trying to establish its point of origin, for that is simply not revealed to us. Rather, in the moment of the cross, it becomes clear that evil is utterly subverted for good. Romans 8:28 is true because of the cross of Christ: if God can take the greatest of evils and turn it to the greatest of goods, then how much more can he take the lesser evils which litter human history, from individual tragedies to international disasters, and turn them to his good purpose as well.

路德的十字架神学极其丰富,无法在一篇文章中详述,但是我相信借着以上简单的描述,当我们思想哥林多前书,察觉到外貌和实体之间的巨大反差,这种反差遍布在圣经中,且被马丁路德有力地汇集起来,我们就可以挖掘到这种神学思想丰富的矿脉。这是神学的金矿,是对于感官主义(sentimentality),成功神学(prosperity doctrine),以及一种过分属世的末世观的解毒剂。十字架不只是神为我们赎罪的地方;它也是一个深奥的启示:告诉我们祂是什么样的神,祂如何对祂所创造的万物施行祂的作为。
Luther's theology of the cross is too rich to be covered adequately in a single article, but I hope that my brief sketch above will indicate the rich vein of theological reflection which can be mined by those who reflect upon 1 Corinthians 1 and upon the dramatic antitheses between appearance and reality that are scattered throughout Scripture and marshaled with such force by Martin Luther. An antidote to sentimentality, prosperity doctrine, and an excessively worldly eschatology, this is theological gold dust. The cross is not simply the point at which God atones for sin; it is also a profound revelation of who God is and how he acts toward his creation.

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About the Author


卡尔?楚曼 是费城西敏斯特神学院教会历史和历史神学教授。他的著作有:《路德的遗赠:救恩和英国的改教者 1525-1446》。本文转载自New Horizons, October 2005号。感谢作者于编者惠允转载。
Carl Trueman is Professor of Church History and Historical Theology at Westminster Theological Seminary in Philadelphia. He is the author of Luther's Legacy: Salvation and English Reformers 1525–1556. This article is reprinted from New Horizons, October 2005 with the kind permission of the author and editor.

诚之按:RITF是我好几年以来的梦想。
在两年前我曾经尝试召集过一些愿意参与翻译的网络同工,可惜只翻译了几篇文章后就无法坚持下去。
希望将来还有机会继续这个网络翻译团契的工作。
目前的网址是:http://ritf.chinesereformed.org/
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