注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

守诚阁

基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学

 
 
 

日志

 
 

真正的加尔文主义:思想和情感的敬虔  

2010-06-10 00:52:00|  分类: 改革宗神学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

真正的加尔文主义:思想和情感的敬虔


葛菲罗 博士 着
首次登载于Evangelium, Vol. 3, Issue 5
唐兴 译

Real Calvinism: A Head and Heart Religion


by W. Robert Godfrey, Ph.D.
First published in Evangelium, Vol. 3, Issue 5
Chinese Translation by Hsing Tang

原文链接:http://www.wscal.edu/faculty/wscwritings/Godfrey_Calvinism_Head_Heart_Religion.php?utm_source=newsletter1006&utm_medium=email&utm_content=textlink&utm_campaign=monthly

“在教义和学术方面强而有力,但是在生命、传福音和情感方面却软弱无力。”这往往是人们对加尔文主义的普遍印象。当代的加尔文派也许要为延续这种印象负责。某些加尔文派人士,因为急于追求神学上的精准,似乎要把他们的教会变成一个神学争论的团体。某种程度上,这种普遍的印象是正确的,因为现代加尔文派人士,已经不再是真正的加尔文主义者了。
“Strong on doctrine and scholarship, but weak on life, evangelism and passion.” Too frequently this is the popular image of Calvinism. Contemporary Calvinists may sometimes be responsible for perpetuating this image. In their eagerness for theological precision some Calvinists seem to want to turn their churches into theological debating societies. To the extent the popular image is accurate, contemporary Calvinists have ceased to be genuine Calvinists.

真正的加尔文主义者,对情感的敬虔和思想的敬虔是同样重视的。也就是说:他们注重信心的生活,也同样注重教义的正统。
Real Calvinists are as concerned about heart religion as they are about head religion. That is to say they are as concerned about the life of faith as they are about doctrinal orthodoxy.

在今日的美国,许多福音派的信仰似乎过分重视敬虔的经验,以至于忽略了教义真理的重要性。但是,这种在福音派中的失调,不应该造成加尔文主义的失调。真正的加尔文主义知道,纯正的教义会改变生命,也必须要改变生命。
In America today much evangelical religion seems so concerned about religious experience that it tends to neglect the importance of doctrinal truth. But this imbalance in evangelicalism should not lead to an imbalance in Calvinism. True Calvinism knows that sound doctrine is and must be life changing.

约翰?加尔文说,真正的宗教是从敬虔产生出来的。他把敬虔定义为:“因着认识神的恩惠,而生出对神的敬畏与爱。”(《基督教要义》,I,ii,1)认识神的真理是基础,在此基础上一定会结出敬畏和爱的果实。加尔文主义在圣经中所发现的独特真理,会导致一种出众的敬虔、生命、和敬拜。
John Calvin said that true religion was born of piety. He defined piety as “that reverence joined with love of God which the knowledge of his benefits induces.” (Inst. I,ii,1) Knowledge of God’s truth is foundational, but it always bears fruit in reverence and love. The distinctive truth that Calvinism finds in the Bible leads to a distinctive piety, life and worship.

在历史中
In History

这种信念并非局限于加尔文或是第一代的加尔文派人士。整个归正运动的历史曾经一再重申:要同时委身于思想和情感的敬虔。西元1563年所写的《海德堡教理问答》(The Heidelberg Catechism),强而有力地陈述了这个事实。热情而有活力的敬虔是这个教理问答独特的标记之一。它重复地问:“此教义对你有什麽益处?”
That conviction was not limited to Calvin or the first generation of Calvinists. Again and again throughout the history of the Reformed movement the commitment to a religion of both the head and heart has been reasserted. The Heidelberg Catechism, written in 1563, powerfully demonstrates that fact. Warm, vital piety is one of the distinguishing marks of the catechism. Repeatedly it asks, “How does this doctrine profit you?”

我们可以在17世纪的荷兰改革宗神学家,福特司(Gisbertus Voetius)身上,发现这种执着于思想和情感的敬虔。他是当代伟大的经院神学家,非常注重神学的准确性。但是,他也非常重视充满活力的敬虔。他出版的第一部著作就是“信仰力量的明证(Proof of the Power of Godliness)。”他成为神学教授的就职演说题目,可以说是其生命热忱的总结:“论知识与敬虔的结合”(On knowledge joined with piety)。
In the seventeenth century we can find an example of this commitment to head and heart religion in the Dutch Reformed theologian Gisbertus Voetius. He was one of the great scholastic theologians of his era and was very concerned with accurate theology. But he was also very concerned about vital religion. His first published work was “Proof of the Power of Godliness.” The title of his inaugural lecture as professor of theology summarized the passion of his life: “On knowledge joined with piety.”

福特司的信念与英国清教徒非常相似。他们通常引用《以弗所书》5:15,作为他们所专注的基础:“你们要谨慎行事,不要像愚昧人,当像智慧人。”对清教徒来说,基督徒的生活必须是一个受察验的生活。他们立志要审慎地对待基督徒的信仰内容和生活方式,这种委身非常重要。清教徒在《西敏斯特信仰告白》和《大小教理问答》(the Westminster Confession and Catechisms)中,为他们精辟的观点做了总结。在这些关键性的文献中,我们可以看到他们不但关心教义的真理,也同样注意具有活力和圣洁的生活。
Voetius had a conviction very much like that of the Puritans in Great Britain. They often referred to Ephesians 5:15 as a foundation of their concerns: “Look carefully then how you walk, not as unwise but as wise.” For the Puritans, the Christian life must be an examined life. The commitment to being careful in what Christians believe and how they live is crucial. The Puritans summarized their insights in the Westminster Confession and Catechisms. In these key documents we can see they are as concerned about vital and holy lives as they are about doctrinal truth.

美国的加尔文主义也有相似的信念。西元1812年,美国第一所长老会神学院——普林斯顿神学院( Princeton Theological Seminary)的建校文献中,就包括了这样的声明:“有学术而无热忱,有热忱而无学术,最终都必会危害到教会。”普林斯顿神学院以及其继承者之一——加州西敏斯特神学院——认识到热忱和学术,对健康的教会都是重要的。有学术而无热忱,是冷酷无情的,会变成死气沉沉的理性主义(rationalism);有热忱而无学术,则是无知识的情感主义(emotionalism)。
American Calvinism has had a similar conviction. The founding documents of Princeton Theological Seminary, the first Presbyterian seminary founded in America in 1812, include the statement: “learning without zeal and zeal without learning must ultimately prove injurious to the church.” Princeton Seminary – and Westminster California as one of its successors – recognized that both zeal and learning were important for the well-being of the church. Learning without zeal is cold and tends to deadness and rationalism. Zeal without learning is uninformed emotionalism.

在圣经中
In Scripture

当然,加尔文主义注重思想和情感的重要性,是源于圣经的。我们可以清楚地从《诗篇》45篇看到,神伟大君王的职事是:“为真理、谦卑、公义赫然坐车前往,无不得胜”(第4节)。这些元素——真理、谦卑和公义——为合于圣经和归正神学的敬虔做出了总结:正统的教义和满有活力的生命是相互依存的。
This Calvinistic conviction about the importance of head and heart religion is of course derived from the Scriptures. One place where we can see that clearly is in Psalm 45, where we are told that the mission of God’s great king is this: “In your majesty ride forth victoriously in behalf of truth, humility and righteousness” (v. 4.) These three elements – truth, humility and righteousness – summarize the interdependence of orthodoxy and vitality in Biblical and Reformed religion.

《诗篇》45篇是歌颂神伟大蒙祝福的君王。这个君王因其无可指责的性格而蒙祝福(2,7,8节)。他总是爱好公义,恨恶罪恶。这个君王因其无数的征服而蒙祝福(2-6,16节)。他为了神的缘故,将胜过他的仇敌。他的美丽配偶也是神的祝福(9-15节)。他在他的王后身上看见喜乐、美貌与纯净。
Psalm 45 is a celebration of God’s great and blessed king. This king is blessed in his blameless character (vs. 2,7,8). He is the one who always loves the good and hates the evil. This king is blessed in his bountiful conquest (vs. 3-6,16). He will be victorious over all his enemies in God’s cause. And he is blessed in his beautiful consort (vs. 9-15). He finds joy, beauty and purity in his bride.

这个图画是描绘一个理想的王应有的样式,没有一个以色列的王能够达到这个理想。但是,诗篇歌颂这个王如何应验了《申命记》17:18-20所描述的那位忠心的王:“他登了国位,就要将祭司利未人面前的这律法书,为自己抄录一本,存在那里;要平生诵读,好学息敬畏耶和华他的神,谨守遵行这律法书上的一切言语和这些律例,免得他向弟兄心高气傲,偏左偏右,离了这诫命。”
The picture of this king is an ideal of what kingship should be. No actual king in Israel ever fully measured up to this ideal. But the psalm celebrates how the king should fulfill the vision of the true and faithful king described in Deuteronomy 17:18-20, “When he takes the throne of his kingdom, he is to write for himself on a scroll a copy of this law, taken from that of the priests, who are Levites It is to be with him, and he is to read it all the days of his life so that he may learn to revere the Lord his God and follow carefully all the words of this law and these decrees and not consider himself better than his brothers and turn from the law to the right or to the left.”

在《申命记》中,如同《诗篇》45篇一样,这位君王颂扬真理、谦卑和公义。这位君王持守神话语的真理;他每日默想神的话,与神的话同在。他不高举自己高于他的弟兄,反而与他们认同,表现了他的谦卑。他活出了神律法的义,不偏离左右。
Here in Deuteronomy – as in Psalm 45 – the king exalts truth, humility and righteousness. The king upholds the truth of God’s word, which he has ever with him and meditates on every day. He expresses the humility of one who does not exalt himself above his brothers, but identifies with them. He lives out the righteousness of God’s law, deviating neither to the right nor to the left.

在基督里
In Christ

这位理想的君王,唯独应验在耶稣基督身上。唯有祂才是那一位在《申命记》17章和《诗篇》45篇中所描述的伟大和蒙祝福的君王。我们在《启示录》19:9,11,16中清楚地看到:“凡被请赴羔羊之婚筵的有福了!……我观看,见天开了。有一匹白马,骑在马上的称为诚信真实,他审判,争战都按着公义……在他衣服和大腿上有名写着说:万王之王,万主之主。”祂的名字是真理。祂谦卑如羔羊。祂以公义和公平得胜。
This ideal of kingship is fulfilled only in Jesus Christ. He alone is the great and blessed king described in Deuteronomy 17 and Psalm 45. We see that clearly in Revelation 19:9,11,16, “Blessed are those who are invited to the wedding supper of the Lamb!...I saw heaven standing open and there before me was a white horse, whose rider is called Faithful and True. With justice he judges and makes war….On his robe and on his thigh he has this name written: King of Kings and Lord of Lords.” His name is true. As a lamb he is humble. He is righteous and just in his victory.

根据《诗篇》45:4,这位荣耀的王不但本身具备了真理、谦卑和公义;借着祂的得胜,祂的子民也会彰显出这些美德。祂正在建立一个国度,属祂的子民也将会具备真理、谦卑和公义。
This glorious king, according to Psalm 45:4 is not only true, humble and righteous in himself. He rides to victory that his people may also manifest these virtues. He is building a kingdom in which his subjects too will be true, humble and righteous.

在基督里,我们作为祂的子民被呼召進入真理。真理不是神子民一项锦上添花的选择。耶稣指示祂的使徒们,要教导众门徒遵行祂所有的命令。真门徒会渴慕知道神在基督里的启示。当讲到真理时,耶稣不会是一个最低限度的要求者;跟随祂的人也必须不是。这就是为什么加州西敏斯特神学院投下大量的时间和精力,要教导未来的牧师们如何认识,并且教导神的话的原因。
In Christ we as his people are called to the truth. Truth is not an optional extra for the people of God. In his Great Commission Jesus instructed his apostles to teach disciples to obey all that he had commanded them. True disciples are eager to know the fullness of God’s revelation in Christ. Jesus is not a minimalist when it comes to truth and neither must his followers be. That is why we at Westminster California spend so much time and energy teaching future ministers to know and teach the Word.

在基督里,我们被呼召成为谦卑。在改革宗的团体里,没有好好地彰显出这项美德。我们的学术和正统往往让我们骄傲。这种骄傲使我们无法服事他人。借着祷告、认罪和努力的工作,我们需要培养一种爱他人的情操,以及一种迫切感,分享我们所知道的。谦卑不是假装真理是不重要的;而是倾听他人,更加认识到他们也有神的灵,并且我们也可以向他们学习,如何服事主和祂的子民。
In Christ we are called to humility. This virtue is not always well represented in the Reformed community. Too often a confidence in our learning and orthodoxy has made us proud. That pride does not commend our cause to others. By prayer, confession and hard work, we need to cultivate a spirit of love for others and an eagerness to share what we have. Humility is not pretending that truth is unimportant. It is listening to others and growing in recognizing that they too have the Spirit of God and that we can learn from them how to serve the Lord and his people.

在基督里,我们被呼召成为义。首先,这个义是基督本身完全的义,为了我们的称义,归算于我们;我们是单单借着信心称义的。但是,这个义也是成圣的义,是基督在祂子民心中渐进的工作。在基督里,我们将会成为一个在圣洁中成长的族类。
In Christ we are called to righteousness. This righteousness in the first place is the perfect righteousness of Christ himself imputed to us for our justification and received by faith alone. But this righteousness is also the sanctifying righteousness that Christ progressively works in his people. In Christ we will be a people growing in holiness.

结论
Conclusion

这种信念就是加州西敏斯特神学院(Westminster Seminary California)事工的基础。我们所致力的,是受到良好教育和充满活力的事奉。同时关切思想(纯正的教义)以及情感(信心的生活),是非常重要的。今日的教会似乎对教育漠不关心,只关切牧师在领导和激励会众方面,是否有热忱,“有效率”。但是,牧师是被呼召出来,要成为神话语的职事。若要忠心地传讲神的话,他们就必须能够研读神的话;为了研读神的话,他们就必须了解希腊文和希伯来文,知道圣经研究和神学的历史,认识教会的信仰告白。那些仅仅研读英文圣经而传讲信息,并且不清楚历史上基督教神学思想的人,可能会带领教会误入歧途。他们往往不是真正的谦卑。他们也许认为,他们对教育的漠不关心是谦卑的标记,但是实际上,坚持其事工不需要依靠其他的教会和其他教会的智慧,乃是他们的骄傲——认为他们可以独自完成事工。这种心态导致了无数教义上的错误,搅扰着美国的教会。
This conviction is the foundation of the work of Westminster Seminary California. We strive for a well-educated and vital ministry. It is essential to be concerned about both the head, sound doctrine, as well as the heart, the life of faith. Some churches today seem indifferent to education and only concerned that a minister be enthusiastic and “effective” in leading and inspiring people. But ministers are called to be ministers of the Word. To preach the Word faithfully they must be able to study the Word. For that study they need to know something of Greek and Hebrew, of the history of Biblical studies and theology, and of the confessions of the church. Those who simply preach from their study of the English translations and have little knowledge of the history of Christian theological reflection are likely to lead the church astray. They often are not really humble. They may suggest that their indifference to education is a sign of humility, but actually they are proudly maintaining that they do not need the rest of the church and its wisdom in their work – but that they can go it on their own. That attitude has resulted in innumerable doctrinal errors that beset American churches.

《多特法典》(The Canons of Dort)的结论,强调了改革宗对教义在基督徒生活中正当功能的认识:“这个大会激励所有基督福音的传道弟兄们,在学术机构以及在众教会里,以敬虔与虔诚的心来对待这个教训;如此做,不论是用口还是用笔,是为了神之名的荣耀,灵命的圣洁,并叫不安的灵魂……”纯正的教义不但荣耀神,也帮助神的子民。神的子民确实会受真理的激励,生出真正的信心;而真正的信心就会在他们的生活中生出圣洁和安慰。
The conclusion of the Canons of Dort highlights the Reformed understanding of the proper function of doctrine in the life of the Christian community: “This Synod exhorts all their brethren in the gospel of Christ to conduct themselves piously and religiously in handling this doctrine, both in the universities and churches; to direct it, as well in discourse as in writing, to the glory of the Divine name, to holiness of life, and to the consolation of afflicted souls….” Pure doctrine both glorifies God and helps the people of God. God’s people are indeed encouraged by the truth to true faith which produces holiness and comfort in their lives.

作者是现任加州西敏斯特神学院院长,教会历史教授。

? 2010 Westminster Seminary California All rights reserved
PERMISSIONS: You are permitted to reproduce and distribute this material in any format provided that you do NOT alter the wording in any way and you do not charge a fee beyond the cost of reproduction. For web posting, a link to this document on our website is preferred. Any distributed copy must contain the following statement: By [author's full name] ? [date] Westminster Seminary California. Website: www.wscal.edu. E-mail: info@wscal.edu. Phone: 888/480.8474 For Evangelium articles, the reproduced copy must contain: "First published in Evangelium, Vol. 3, Issue 5 (Jan/Feb 2005)."
  评论这张
 
阅读(400)| 评论(1)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017