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基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学

 
 
 

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历史书中的基督  

2010-07-23 03:51:00|  分类: 圣经神学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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历史书中的基督


钟士豪(Hywel R. Jones)博士着
首刊于Evangelium, Vol. 4, Issue 4
唐兴 译

CHRIST IN THE HISTORICAL BOOKS
Hywel R. Jones, Ph.D.
First published in Evangelium, Vol. 4, Issue 4
Chinese Translation by Hsing Tang
http://www.wscal.edu/faculty/wscwritings/07.12.php

英文圣经中,从约书亚记到以斯帖记的书卷,通常被认为是包括在旧约“历史书”的标题之下。在由律法书(the Law)、先知书(the Prophets)和圣卷(the Writings)所组成的希伯来文圣经里,这些书卷并没有属于自己的部分。如此的分配表示历史记载与其他的圣经资料——先知书、智慧书和律法——具有密切的关系。它们并不包含“赤裸裸(原始)的事实(brute facts,译按:指完全“客观”、未经解释的事实)”(难道真有此事?),并且,它们所记录的历史不是“废话”(bunk)。历史书中事件的意义,要靠旧约中其他的书卷来阐明。它们属于神向祂子民之自我启示的一部分。它们记录了以色列人从进入应许地,直到被放逐到巴比伦以后归回的历史。这些叙事若讲到关于基督的事,肯定与以色列的历史有关系。
The books of the Old Testament that are usually thought of under the heading “Historical Books” are those from Joshua to Esther in our English Bibles. They are not assigned a section of their own in the Hebrew Bible which comprises the Law, the Prophets and the Writings. This distribution indicates that historical records have close connections with the other kinds of biblical material—prophetic, wisdom and legal. They do not contain “brute facts” (are there ever such?), and the history that they record is not “bunk.” They contain events whose meanings are illuminated by the rest of the Old Testament. They are part of the self-revelation of God to his people. They record the history of Israel from her entry into the Promised Land to her reoccupation of it after the Exile in Babylon. If these narratives have anything to say about Christ, it is in what is said about the history of Israel.

历史书:以色列与圣约
The Historical Books: Israel and Covenant

约书亚记、士师记、路得记、撒母耳记、列王纪、历代志、以斯拉记、尼希米记和以斯帖记都在回溯以色列人从埃及得拯救,并在神的治理和照顾下,成为神的子民。首先,这是神透过摩西在西奈山与他们立的约(出19:4-6),接着是透过与他们的王——大卫所立的约(撒下7:12-17)而成就的。
The books of Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Samuel, Kings, Chronicles, Ezra-Nehemiah and Esther all fold back on the deliverance from Egypt and her constitution as the people of God under his rule and care. This was brought about first by way of the covenant made at Sinai through Moses (Exod 19:4-6) and then with David as their king (2 Sam 7:12-17). 历史书提供了一个连续的图像,展现出以色列人如何以神子民的身份生活,无论是享受约的祝福,或是承受约的咒诅(被放逐是咒诅的极致),都与圣约关系的条件有关。
The historical books provide a succession of snapshots that show how Israel as the people of God lived in relation to the terms of that covenant relationship, whether enjoying its blessings or enduring its curses climaxing in exile.

因此,高峰代表以色列历史中的兴盛和平安,低谷代表受侵略和蹂躏。但是,这上下起伏的历史具有一个共同的主题——神如何与祂的子民一同忍耐,不论在平顺时,或在困难时,神都一直忠于自己对他们的承诺。这些历史文献揭开了神与祂的子民,在这一千多年的时期中的相处和生活。
High points therefore mark the history of Israel, for example prosperity and safety, and so also do low points, in terms of invasion and devastation. But this undulating history has a common thread—how the Lord perseveres with his people and remains faithful to his commitment to them through not only good, but bad times, too. It is this living and varied interaction between God and his people that the historical literature unfolds over a period of some thousand years.

这些书卷是在圣约关系下交织成形的,而此圣约关系是在西奈山,以及与大卫的家室所建立的。一方面,神的信实,为弥赛亚的受差遣/降生预先作好准备;另一方面,神子民的失败,使弥赛亚的来临成为必要。这就是在这些记录中看到基督的一般性视角。
These books are crafted on the loom of covenant relationship, established at Sinai and with David’s house. On the one hand, God’s faithfulness anticipates the sending/coming of the Messiah, and on the other, the people’s failure necessitates it. That is the general perspective on seeing Christ in these records.

历史书:以色列与基督
The Historical Books: Israel and Christ

因此,藉由圣约的子民和他们的王,我们可以从历史书中看见基督。无论怎么说,历史终究是由“素材”所形成的,而不只是一个宏大的结构。在这些记录中,我们如何、在哪里找到“基督”呢?在所有的这些书卷中,一方面,有关于先知、祭司和君王(士师)丰富的资料,另一方面也有关于“平信徒”,以及关于他们仇敌的丰富资料。这些被选择记录下来的事实,其重要性在于:它们组成了“瞬间的景象”,描绘出神的国度在当时的演变。神的国度是在伊甸园就应许的(参创3:15),在西奈山被暂时建立起来(出19:5-6),然后由大卫王所确立(撒下7:11-16)。它(神的国度)是否正在往前推进呢?若没有,原因为何?是否受到威胁呢?这些威胁是来自外部,还是内部?那些应该引领人归向神的人,是否事实上却在带领人远离神呢?
Christ is therefore seen in the Historical Books through the covenant people and their king. After all is said and done, history is made up of “stuff” and is not just a grand scheme. Where and how can “Christ” be found in the records themselves? In all of these books there are abundant references to prophets, priests and kings (judges) on the one hand and to the “laity” on the other—and also to their foes. These selected facts are important because they compose the “snapshot” that depicts how the kingdom of God, promised in Eden (see Gen 3:15), provisionally set up at Sinai (see Exod 19:5-6) and established with King David (2 Sam 7:11-16), was faring at the time. Was it being advanced or not? If not, why not? Was it even being threatened? And was that happening from without or from within? Were those who should have led the people to God in fact leading them away from him?

我们要从旧约中举两个事件为例,一个是正面的,另一个是负面的,来思想在经文中如何发现这些原则,以及它们如何指向基督和新约的时代。
We will now take two sample events, positive and negative, from the Old Testament and see how these principles are found in the text and point forward to Christ and the new covenant era.

I. 衰败:列王纪上12:25-33
I. Decline: 1 Kings 12:25-33

这种例子最值得注意的,就是北国以色列的整个历史。它持续了约200多年,并且结束于主前722年。它主要被记载在列王纪里。以上所选的经文(王上12:25-33)描述了尼八的儿子耶罗波安如何巩固他的统治。神的旨意是要他按照大卫所行的,统治部分的支派。相反地,他却设立了另外一种神权。他建造城市是为了防御,而非信靠神;他建造敬拜中心是为了让非亚伦系统的祭司们得以供职。他们在那里设立偶像,并且自己订定节日,使人想起西奈山的金牛犊事件。
The most noteworthy example of this kind is the whole history of the Northern Kingdom of Israel that lasted some two hundred years and was brought to an end in 722 BC. It is documented mainly in the Books of Kings. The portion selected above (1Kgs 12:25-33) shows how Jeroboam the son of Nebat consolidated his rule. While it was in God’s purpose for him to rule certain tribes, he was to govern them as David had done (1Kgs 11:38-39). Instead, he erected an alternative theocracy. He built cities for defense instead of trusting God, and religious centers where non-Aaronic priests functioned, where idols reminiscent of the golden calves incident at Sinai were set up and self-determined feasts were established.

从在这段经文中,我们看到了如何统治神的子民的负面例子。它也呈现了一个对比的图像,告诉我们大卫伟大的儿子,要如何建造神的家,也就是新约的教会。祂不会引导祂的子民进入罪中,而是要带领他们为了神的荣耀行走义路。
In this passage we have an example of how not to rule God’s people. But it also presents a contrasting picture of what David’s greater Son will do in building a house for God, that is, the New Testament church. He will not lead his people into sin, but to paths of righteousness for God’s glory.

II. 复兴:以斯拉记8:21-23
II. Recovery: Ezra 8:21-23

这是一个截然不同的事件。以色列被掳到巴比伦已经接近尾声。一批犹太人已经与所罗巴伯一同归回(参拉1:5~2:70);他们筑起祭坛,在坛上献燔祭,并且在原址为圣殿立下了基础。这完全是按照摩西的律法书所写的(拉3:2-3),与耶罗伯安的作法成为明显的对比!撒马利亚人反对此事,但是他们的抗议遭到大利乌的否决;哈该和西番雅所传讲的信息,使犹太人克服了懒散。他们完成了圣殿的重建,并且守逾越节。这乃是圣约神权统治的恢复。
Here is a very different event. Exile in Babylon has come to an end. A group of Jews has returned with Zerubbabel (see Ezra 1:5-2:70), erected the altar, offered sacrifices, and laid the foundation of the temple on its previous site. All was done in accord with the prescriptions of the Law of Moses (Ezra 3:2-3), in telling contrast to what Jeroboam had done! Opposition came from the Samaritans but their protest was overruled by Darius; indolence on the part of the Jews was overcome by the prophesying of Haggai and Zechariah. The temple was finished, and the Passover was observed. Here is the resumption of the covenant theocracy.

五十多年之后,以斯拉决心要率领其他人从巴比伦归回耶路撒冷(拉7:1-6)。作为一个祭司-文士,他的计划是要在以色列教导以色列人神的律法,进行更进一步的重建(第10节)。再者,神赐给他完成重建工作的恩赐,提供他建殿的所需,并赋予他拥有任命以色列人官职的权柄。他接着招聚了利未人进行圣殿的事奉。
Some fifty years later, Ezra resolved to return to Jerusalem from Babylon and to take others with him ( Ezra 7:1-6). A priest-scribe, his plan was to teach the law of God in Israel and so take this restoration further (v.10). In addition, he was provided with gifts to furnish and supply the temple with what was needed and authority to appoint officials in Israel. He then gathered Levites for temple service.

以上所选的经文(拉8:21-23),描述了以斯拉招聚归回者和他们的儿女,向主寻求一条通往耶路撒冷的安全道路。主的守护大能就这样得到见证,他们也开始热心地祈求主的同在。这是一个位处外邦土地上的迷你教会,准备向地上的耶路撒冷展开朝圣之旅。
The section chosen above (Ezra 8:21 –23) shows him gathering the returnees and their children to seek from the Lord a safe passage to Jerusalem. A testimony to the Lord’s protecting power had been borne and now earnest prayer for his presence is made. Here is a mini-church in a foreign land about to make its pilgrimage to the earthly Jerusalem.

也许这些会让某些读者想起约翰?罗宾森牧师和朝圣者(Pastor John Robinson and the Pilgrims)。他们在17世纪时离开雷敦(Leyden),前往新世界(the New World)。但是,这里呈现出一个更伟大的景象。作为教导的祭司,以斯拉是弥赛亚的预表,我们在这里预先瞥见每一个主日要发生的事。主耶稣基督在河边招聚祂朝圣的子民,使他们的心欢畅,与他们一同赞美神,替他们、并与他们一同祈求,使得世界旷野中的任何事物,都无法阻止他们任何一个人到达天上的锡安。
This may remind some readers of Pastor John Robinson and the Pilgrims who left Leyden for the New World in the 17th century. But there is a greater scene to call to mind. As a teaching priest, Ezra is a type of the Messiah, and here is a glimpse in advance of what happens every Lord’s Day. The Lord Jesus Christ gathers his pilgrim people by the river that gladdens their hearts, praises God with them, prays for them and with them that nothing in this wilderness of a world may prevent any one of them from reaching the heavenly Zion.

结论Conclusion

从基督徒的角度来看,人们常会说历史是“祂”的故事(history is “His” story)。按着祂的护理(providence),神在由时间、地方和人所交织形成的人类历史中,成就了救恩,达到祂救赎的目的。在新约的福音书中,我们特别看到这一点。四福音书记录了永恒的神果断地亲自进入时间和空间中,祂在道成肉身的儿子的本身和工作上,以及在世界基督教会历史中,成就了这项奇迹的事件。使徒行传是其后续行动的范例——神和人、善和恶、神和撒但的持续行动。对旧约的以色列而言,同样也是如此,除了其记录的方式是在期盼弥赛亚的来到,而不是结果。
From a Christian standpoint it has often been said that history is ‘His’ story. By his providence, God accomplishes salvation and works out his saving purpose in and through the web of times, places and people that make up human history. This is seen particularly in the New Testament Gospels which record that the eternal God himself stepped decisively into time and place in the person and work of his incarnate Son and in the history of the Christian church in the world as a consequence of that miraculous event. The book of the Acts of the Apostles is a paradigm of that continuing activity — divine and human, good and bad, divine and satanic. It is exactly the same in the Old Testament with regard to Israel, except that it is there recorded by way of anticipation of the coming Messiah and not consequence.

因此,旧约历史不是一连串不同或无目的事件。它是神在建造耶稣基督的国度时,所彰显出来的圣约公义和怜悯。
Old Testament History is therefore not a disparate or purposeless succession of events. It is the outworking of the covenant justice and mercy of God as he builds the kingdom of Jesus Christ.

Hywel R. Jones
Professor of Practical Theology
B.A., University of Wales; M.A., University of Cambridge; Ph.D., Greenwich University School of Theology (UK).

?2007 Westminster Seminary California All rights reserved
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