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路德与慈运理(二):路德对主的晚餐的看法  

2011-05-30 23:48:00|  分类: 教会议题 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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路德与慈运理(二):路德对主的晚餐的看法
Luther vs. Zwingli 2: Luther on the Lord's Supper


作者:Trevin Wax 译者:诚之
原文链接:http://trevinwax.com/2008/02/11/luther-vs-zwingli-2-luther-on-the-lords-supper/
(感谢作者授权翻译 )

续上

1529年,在路德和慈运理进入马尔堡,参加这场关于主的晚餐的本质的著名争论之前,他们都早就胸有成竹,对圣餐以及基督与圣礼同在的本质有着坚定的信念。我们会先查考改教家对于主的晚餐的看法,然后再来看马尔堡的争论。
Before Luther and Zwingli entered the Marburg castle in 1529 for their famous debate over the nature of the Lord’s Supper, both these men had formed strong convictions regarding the Eucharist and the nature of Christ’s presence in the sacrament. We will begin by looking at the Reformers’ views of the Lord’s Supper in particular before turning to the debate at Marburg.

路德神学对主的晚餐的看法
Luther’s Theology of the Lord’s Supper


宗教改革之前的中世纪,弥撒是基督徒崇拜与灵修的核心。路德开始在威登堡执教的三个世纪之前,1215年的第四次拉特兰大公会议(fourth Lateran council)确立了“化质说”(transubstantiation)的教义。这个教义主张,当天主教的神父奉献饼和酒之后,其“外形”(accidents,感官所觉察到的)维持原样,但是其“本质”(substance,内在的“质素essence”)却奇迹地转变成基督实际的身体和血。
In the medieval period before the Reformation, the mass formed the centerpiece of Christian worship and devotion. Three centuries before Luther began teaching in Wittenberg, the fourth Lateran council of 1215 established the doctrine of transubstantiation, which holds that upon the priest’s consecration of the bread and wine, the accidents (according to the senses) remain the same, but the substance (the internal “essence”) is miraculously transformed into the physical body and blood of Christ.

这个教义潜在的涵义到处散布。平信徒开始从远处崇拜饼和酒,或迷信地把饼带回家,种在花园里增加收成,或者把饼给生病的动物,想让牠们好起来。为了避免不小心把酒洒出来,神父开始只分派饼给教区的信众,把圣餐的杯保留给自己。到了1500年代左右,大多数教会连饼也不再分配了。
The implications of this doctrine were widespread. Laypeople began to adore the bread and wine from afar or superstitiously carry pieces of bread back home to plant in the garden for good crops or to give to an ailing animal for good health. To avoid an accidental spilling of the wine, the priests began giving only the bread to parishioners, keeping the cup for themselves. By the 1500’s, even the bread was withheld in most churches.

弥撒已经变成一种表演,而不是圣礼。有些教区成员狂热地在教会间奔波,为的只是要获得祝福,在同一天内看见不只一个圣体。
The mass had turned into a show instead of a sacrament. Some parishioners feverishly hurried from church to church to obtain the blessing of seeing more than one host in a given day.

路德反对这种中世纪迷信所带来的极端作法,但是他仍然将“圣像,钟,圣餐袍,教会饰品,祭坛的灯和类似之物”视为“可有可无之事”(things indifferent)
Luther objected to the extreme practices brought by medieval superstition, but he continued to regard the “images, bells, Eucharistic vestments, church ornaments, altar lights and the like” as “indifferent.”

有两件事特别让路德对罗马天主教对主的晚餐的看法感到困扰。首先,他强烈反对不让平信徒拿圣餐的杯。路德相信平信徒应该要参与到弥撒当中,这个信念强烈到一个地步,他咒诅罗马天主教的做法有如教会“被巴比伦俘虏”了 。(不过,我们要留意,路德并不认为不给圣餐的杯就必定会使圣餐失效,或上个世纪的基督徒如果没有领杯,就没有得到圣礼的福分。)
Two things in particular bothered Luther about the Roman Catholic view of the Lord’s Supper. First, he disagreed sharply with the practice of withholding the cup from the laity. So strongly did Luther believe in the laity’s participation in the mass that he condemned the Roman Catholic practice as one way that “Babylon” holds the church “captive.” (It should be noted however that Luther did not believe that withholding the cup necessarily invalidated the sacrament or that the Christians who were denied the cup during the previous centuries had not received sacramental benefits.)

其次,路德相信罗马天主教把圣礼当作“善工与献祭”(good work and a sacrifice)是“最邪恶的滥用”(most wicked abuse of all)。路德强而有力地论到,弥撒必须被视为遗嘱(testament)——只能领受,不是必须做的善工。在主的圣餐台前,唯一的祭品是我们所献的祭品。神父把主的身体和血献为祭的这个观念,特别令路德感到震惊,他认为这个信仰是罗马天主教最可憎的错误。
Secondly, Luther believed that the Roman Catholic understanding of the sacrament as a “good work and a sacrifice” was the “most wicked abuse of all.” Luther argued forcefully that the mass must be seen as a testament – something to receive, not a good work to perform. The only sacrifice at the Lord’s Table is the sacrifice of ourselves. The idea that a priest could sacrifice the body and blood of the Lord was especially appalling to Luther and he considered this belief the most abominable of Roman errors.

虽然路德对主的晚餐有独立的看法,但是在大多数层面,他和罗马天主教的神学和做法仍然很相近。虽然他反对向分别为圣的圣体敬拜(adoration),但是同意在圣餐桌前用鞠躬或匍匐的形式来表达敬畏(reverence)的这个观念。他坚持我们敬拜的对象是耶稣基督——祂在圣餐中与我们同在;不是向饼或酒敬拜。
Despite Luther’s independent thinking on the Lord’s Supper, in most aspects, he remained very close to Roman Catholic theology and practice. Though he rejected the adoration of the consecrated host, he affirmed the idea of reverence in the forms of bowing or prostrating oneself before the table. He insisted that the object of adoration should be Jesus Christ, as He is present in the sacrament, not the bread and wine.

但是敬畏和敬拜之间的界限仍然很模糊。虽然路德想要在这方面和罗马划清界限,但是他实际上为他所谴责的极端开了一扇门。
But the line between reverence and adoration remained blurry, and though Luther sought to distance himself from Rome in this regard, he actually left the door open for the extremes he condemns.

路德和罗马教会的教义保持接近的另外一个领域是“真实同在”(real presence)的教义。直到1519之前,路德似乎同意化质说的官方教义。但是到了1520,他相当强烈地批评这个看法,把它描绘成根据亚里斯多德思想的多余臆测。
Another area in which Luther remained close to Roman doctrine is in the doctrine of the “real presence.” Up until 1519, it appears Luther agreed with the official doctrine of transubstantiation. In 1520, he criticized the idea quite forcefully, painting it as needless speculation based on Aristotelian thought.

学习宗教改革的学生,有一个流行的误解,就是认为路德接受并推广“同质说”(consubstantiation),但是路德或路德宗教会从来没有接受过这个说法。路德只是单纯地拒绝猜测基督如何同在,而安于确定祂真的在场。基督在圣餐中同在是奇迹,因此不需要解释。
A popular misconception among Reformation students is that Luther affirmed and promoted “consubstantiation,” but neither Luther nor the Lutheran church ever accepted that term. Luther simply refused to speculate on how Christ is present and instead settled for affirming that he is there. The presence of Christ in the Supper is miraculous and thus defies explanation.

罗马天主教的神学家特别强调,在奉献的时候,当神父举起饼,并且说,“这是我的身体”(Hoc est corpus meum),就在那一剎那,钟声会响起,所有的眼睛都盯着被高举的圣体,饼已经奇迹似地转变成了基督的身体。
Roman Catholic theologians strongly emphasized the moment of consecration, when the priest would lift the bread and say “Hoc est corpus meum.” At that moment, bells would be rung and all eyes would be on the elevated host, which had magically been transformed into Christ’s body.

路德同样强调主设立晚餐时所说的这些话,但是这是因为基督的吩咐所带来的改变,而不是因为神父说的什么特别的话。在这个做法和其他的做法上,路德乐于改变罗马天主教做法背后的想法,而不觉得需要实际上去改变传统本身。
Luther similarly emphasized the words of institution, but only because Christ’s command leads to the change, not because the priest has made a special utterance. In this and other practices, Luther was content to alter the understanding behind Roman Catholic practice without feeling the need to actually change the tradition itself.

路德相信主的晚餐所结出的果子是罪得赦免。罗马的教义主张只有义人可以领圣餐礼,也就是那些向神父认罪的人。路德相信圣餐礼是给罪人的,他们是最需要基督道成肉身的人。
Luther believed that the fruit of the Lord’s Supper is the forgiveness of sins. Roman doctrine held that Communion was for the righteous, those who have confessed their sins to the priest. Luther believed Communion was for sinners, those who needed Christ’s incarnation the most.

路德关于主的晚餐的神学,其核心是“圣礼联合”(sacramental union)的观念。在主的圣餐台前,在这个神圣的时刻,饼与酒的元素,在圣礼的意义上,与基督的身体和血联合在一起(译按:即圣礼外在的记号与记号所象征的内在属灵恩典,在圣礼中有一个联合的关系--靠着圣灵所赐的信心);在这个时刻,上帝同时启示祂自己,也隐藏祂自己。上帝的不可透知与自我启示的这个表面矛盾(paradox)是路德拒绝所有哲学猜测的基础,他拒绝猜测基督到底是如何实际上与圣餐同在。“圣礼的联合”的观念是路德对罗马教会化质说的回应。
The center of Luther’s theology of the Lord’s Supper is the idea of “sacramental union.” At the Lord’s Table, in this sacred moment in which the elements of bread and wine are sacramentally united to the body and blood of Christ, God simultaneously reveals and hides himself. The paradox of God’s incomprehensibility and self-revelation formed the basis for Luther’s rejection of all philosophical speculations on how Christ is physically present. The idea of sacramental union was Luther’s response to Roman transubstantiation.

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