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基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学

 
 
 

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宾拉登之死:何种正义得到了伸张?  

2011-05-03 08:29:00|  分类: 国度生活 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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宾拉登之死:何种正义得到了伸张?
The Death of Osama bin Laden: What Kind of Justice Has Been Done?


The news should again remind us of the difference between the City of Man and the City of God.
作者:Michael Horton
诚之译自:http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2011/mayweb-only/osama-justice.html

我们可以理解,宾拉登死于美军海豹(SEALS)特种部队之手的消息,会令人欢欣鼓舞。恐怖分子的首脑(他戕害一般民众,甚至包括自己回教的同胞)终于在正义面前伏法。但这是哪一种的正义呢?
Understandably, news of Osama bin Laden's demise at the hands of U. S. Navy Seals provoked cries of celebration. The mastermind of terror, even against civilians (indeed, against fellow Muslims) has been brought to justice. But what kind of justice?

911之后不久,布什总统批准了“无限正义行动”(Operation Infinite Justice),特别是在他说到,“这场十字军之战,这场对抗恐怖主义的战争,会进行一段时候”之后。不过,这个任务后来被改名为“持久自由行动”(Operation Enduring Freedom)。据报导,之所以要改名,是因为顾虑到穆斯林的反对,他们认为只有上帝能施行“无限正义”。也许有人希望改名是担心基督徒的反应。
In the immediate aftermath of 9/11, President George W. Bush authorized "Operation Infinite Justice." Especially after his comment that "this crusade, this war on terrorism, is going to take a while," however, the mission was renamed "Operation Enduring Freedom." Reportedly, the name-change was due at least in part to the concern raised by Muslims that only God can execute "infinite justice." One would have hoped that the change had been provoked instead by Christian reaction.

当然,伊斯兰不只是一个宗教;它是一个文化,甚至是政治地理上的实体。因此,它最坚定的持守者,痛责像阿卜杜拉希?阿麦德?安那伊姆(Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im)这样持有相同信仰的学者。这位学者呼吁一场“伊斯兰教的改革”,要把Jihad(圣战)解释成一种灵性上的挣扎,而不是军事武装冲突。
Islam, of course, is not just a religion; it's a cultural and even geo-political reality. As such, its strict adherents excoriate co-religionists like Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im who call for an "Islamic Reformation" that would make jihad into a spiritual struggle rather than an armed military conflict.

很不幸,在这点上,基督教曾有一段冗长而复杂的历史。一方面,第四世纪的神学家奥古斯丁在回应蛮族洗劫罗马时,曾提出“双城”(two cities)——人的城和上帝的城——的详细圣经论证。每个城各有自己的起源,目的和方法。同时身为这两个城的国民,基督徒蒙召要分辨这两个城的差别。和上帝的城相比,人的城根本不能算是真实的财富。它无法保证终极的和平、安全、公义,还有爱。不过,奥古斯丁说,从一个有限的、神的护理和次一级的意义来说,它仍然可以被当作公共的福祉。从这些反思(特别是上帝的城)中,产生了关于正义战争(just war)理论的遗产,以及关于人类社会在这个时代的合法性与限制性的基督徒实在论(Christian realism)。
Unfortunately, Christianity has had a long and complicated history of its own on this score. On one hand, the fourth-century theologian Augustine responded to the sacking of Rome with a detailed scriptural argument for two cities: the City of Man and the City of God. Each city has its own origins, ends, and means. As citizens of both kingdoms, every believer is called to recognize the difference between them. Compared with the City of God, the City of Man is hardly a true commonwealth. It cannot ensure ultimate peace, security, justice, and love. Nevertheless, Augustine argues, it can still be considered a commonwealth in a limited, provisional, and penultimate sense. Out of these reflections (especially in the City of God) there arose a legacy of just war theory and a Christian realism about the legitimacy and limitation of human societies in this time between the times.

然而,中世纪把基督和文化混同起来,产生了所谓的“基督教国家”(Christendom)。当时的国王和骑士打着基督教国家的旗号,带着教皇的祝福,策马加入了十字军行列,有如大卫和耶和华的军队复活了,要清除圣地的异教徒。
Nevertheless, the Middle Ages gave rise to a fusion of Christ and culture known as "Christendom." In the name of Christendom, kings and their knights rode off to crusades with papal blessing, as David and the hosts of Yahweh redivivus, cleansing the Holy Land of infidels.

虽然在具体实践上有所不同,但是改教家们试着区别“基督的国度”(由圣道与圣灵所征服的国度),以及“这世代的国度”(拥有神所赐的权柄,以维护暂时的、地上的公义)。改教家从新约和教会教父那里学到,新约中不存在神治政权(theocracy);所有国家都是“世俗的”(secular),因为它们都不是圣洁的国度,只是公民的国度。如果不存在“圣地”,就没有所谓的“圣战”。只有根据自然律法(natural law。译按:即上帝写在人心中的道德律)的正义之战。
In spite of its own contradictions in practice, the magisterial Reformation sought to distinguish between the kingdom of Christ, which conquers by Word and Spirit, and the kingdoms of this age that are given the divine authority to defend temporal justice. Drawing on the New Testament and church fathers, especially Augustine, the reformers realized that there was no theocracy in the new covenant; all nation-states were "secular" in the sense of being common rather than holy. With no holy land, there can be no holy war. Only just wars, based on natural law.

但是像“基督教国家”这样的观念是很难消弭的。我们看到9/11之后的纪念典礼。这个典礼是在为人熟知的“国家教堂”(National Cathedral)举行的,由三军仪队前导,唱着“基督精兵”(Onward, Christian Soldiers),宣告要在一场无止境的“十字军东征”中,保障无限正义的决心。这是一场新的十字军东征,給伊斯兰极端分子想要重复古代的战争提供了养料。罗曼蒂克式的爱国主义精神总是在政教分离的宣称下不断翻涌,表现在像“共和進行曲”(Battle Hymn of the Republic)这样的歌曲当中。这首歌是由一位独一神论的信徒(Unitarian)所写,把北军的胜利和基督最后的审判混杂在一起。非常接近“无限正义”。
But ideas like "Christendom" die hard. We saw that with the memorial service after 9/11. Held in a building popularly known as the "National Cathedral," with military honor guards processing and the strains of "Onward, Christian Soldiers," announcements of a resolve to secure infinite justice in an open-ended "crusade" provided fodder for Islamic extremists in their effort to replay ancient battles. A romantic patriotism has always seethed beneath the professed separation of church and state, as in the famous "Battle Hymn of the Republic." Written by a Unitarian, the hymn confuses Union victory with Christ's final judgment. Something very close to "infinite justice."

当人们诉诸神圣的经典,要透过圣战来保卫圣地时,这样的文化就会变得非常危险。然而,首先,基督徒这样作是没有圣经根据的。在登山宝训中,耶稣基督清楚地废除了礼仪律和民事律,那是神单单要赐给当时的以色列国的。现在是普遍恩典和共同土地(common grace and common land)的纪元(译按:即基督徒和非基督徒都同时享受神的普遍恩典,生活在同一块土地上),基督徒要顺服掌权者——即使他们是异教徒,並生活在各样的宪法之下,而不是神透过摩西所颁布的律法。如同保罗在罗马书13章所提醒我们的,神赋予世俗统治者这个世界的刀剑——有限正义——的权柄,与此同时,福音要靠着圣灵的能力,透过神的道,来征服世界,而此能力是“超越地上所有权势”(译按:Above All Earthly Pow'rs,是2005年出版的一本书的书名,作者是David Wells)的能力。
Cultures are the most dangerous when they invoke holy texts for their defense of holy land through holy war. However, Christians have no biblical basis for doing this in the first place. In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus clearly abrogated the ceremonial and civil law that God had given uniquely to the nation of Israel. Now is the era of common grace and common land, obeying rulers—even pagan ones—and living under constitutions other than the one that God gave through Moses. As Paul reminds us in Romans 13, secular rulers are given the power of the temporal sword—finite justice—while the gospel conquers in the power of the Spirit through that Word "above all earthly pow'rs."

这对我们回应这则关于最近历史上最恶名昭彰的恐怖分子的新闻有什么意义呢?
What does all of this mean for our response to the news about the most notorious terrorist in recent history?

首先,这意味着即使在这个邪恶的时代,上帝的普遍恩典与普遍公义仍然会透过世俗政权而彰显。“因为(掌权者)是神的仆人,是伸冤的,刑罚那作恶的……凡人所当得的,就给他。当得粮的,给他纳粮;当得税的,给他上税;当惧怕的,惧怕他;当恭敬的,恭敬他。”(罗马书13:4,7)不过,掌权者所施行的神的忿怒,只是暂时和有限的,不是永恒和无限的。这样的正义永远不是纯洁的,必定会掺杂着不义,永远不是终极的,无法满足上帝永恒的律法。神的形象烙印在所有人的心中。从这个观念来说,正义必须要用爱来调和。约翰加尔文在他对创世记9:6的注释中提醒我们,连最恶毒的敌人,我们都不能去恨恶,因为他们仍然仍然有着上帝的形象。从一个观点来说,所有的人都是按照上帝的形象被造的,迫使我们必须拿起刀剑来对抗谋杀。然而从另一个观点来说,这也限制我们想要报复的私欲。“如果有人反对,说这个神的形象已经被消除了,答案很简单;首先,人仍然有一部分[神的形象]的残余,所以仍保有其尊贵;其次,无论人如何堕落,天上的造物主仍然顾念祂最初的创造;而根据祂的榜样,我们必须考虑祂造人的目的是什么,以及祂所赐给我们的,是何等的优越,超过其余的生物。”
First, it means that we can rejoice that even in this present evil age, God's common grace and common justice are being displayed through secular authorities. "For [the ruler] is the servant of God, an avenger who carries out God's wrath on the wrongdoer. … Pay to all what is owed to them: taxes to whom taxes are owed, revenue to whom revenue is owed, respect to whom respect is owed, honor to whom honor is owed" (Rom. 13:4, 7). Yet the divine wrath that rulers execute is temporal and finite rather than eternal and infinite. Such justice is never so pure that it is unmingled with injustice, never so final that it satisfies God's eternal law. In view of the image of God stamped on every person, justice must always be tempered by love. Commenting on Genesis 9:6, John Calvin reminded us that we cannot hate even our most perverse enemies, because of the image of God in them. In one sense, the creation of every person in God's image provokes the temporal sword against murderers. Yet in another sense, it also restrains our lust for revenge. "Should any one object, that this divine image has been obliterated, the solution is easy; first, there yet exists some remnant of it, so that man is possessed of no small dignity; and, secondly, the Celestial Creator himself, however corrupted man may be, still keeps in view the end of his original creation; and according to his example, we ought to consider for what end he created men, and what excellence he has bestowed upon them above the rest of living beings."

其次,这意味着我们不喜悦恶人的死亡,如同上帝不喜悦恶人死亡一样(结18:23)。我们也许会满足于暂时的公义得到了伸张,但是基督徒应当展现一种严肃的节制。当基督再来,带来无限的正义,祂的圣徒会对祂的敌人之死感到欢欣。然而,就现在来说,祂呼召我们为我们的敌人祷告,甚至那些迫害我们的人(太5:44)。这是拯救的时代,呼召罪人悔改,相信福音。我们可以为暂时的公义在恶人身上彰显感到喜悦,但是要把最后的公义留给上帝。
Second, it means that we cannot rejoice in the death of the wicked any more than does God (Ezek. 18:23). We may take satisfaction that temporal justice has been served, but Christians should display a sober restraint. When Christ returns, bringing infinite justice in his wake, his saints will rejoice in the death of his enemies. For now, however, he calls us to pray for our enemies, even for those who persecute us (Matt. 5:44). This is the day of salvation, calling sinners to repent and believe the gospel. We may delight in the temporal justice shown to evildoers, but leave the final justice to God.

第三,这意味着相信福音,向所有的人宣讲福音的使命,是更加迫切了。毕竟,若基督在祂第一次升天时,就带来终极且无限的公义,而不是代表祂的子民担当了这样的公义,我们今天会在哪里呢?在十字架上,基督甘愿把自己献上,作为上帝忿怒的避雷针,而在第三天复活,向死亡誇胜。9/11的事件并没有完全改变主后33年所成就的事。宾拉登在5/1/11的死,也不会满足那最后的公义。最后的公义仍然在末后的日子等候着他——以及我们所有的人。
Third, it means that the mandate to believe and to proclaim the gospel to every person is all the more urgent. After all, where would we be ourselves if Christ, in his first advent, had brought final and infinite justice instead of bearing it on behalf of his people? On the cross, Christ willingly offered himself as the lightning rod for God's infinite wrath, rising triumphantly on the third day. The events of 9/11 did not change everything in the way that the events of 33 A.D. did. Nor will the death of Osama bin Laden on 5/1/11 satisfy the final justice that awaits him—and all of us—on the last day.

所以,当我们为美国部队让恐怖分子在地上暂时的城的法庭下,接受正义的制裁而感到欣慰的同时,我们切不可把这点和“那座有根基的城,就是神所经营所建造的”(来11:10)混淆在一起。让我们利用这个机会向我们的非基督徒邻居展示,圣经对上帝、人性、救赎和最后审判的观念,和其他宗教与世俗之人的扭曲——包括自称为基督徒的人,有何等的天差地别。
So as we take satisfaction in the honorable service of U.S. forces in bringing a terrorist to justice in the court of the temporal city, let us never dare to confuse this with "the city that has foundations, whose designer and builder is God" (Heb. 11:10). In our response, let us use this opportunity to display to our non-Christian neighbors the radical contrasts between the biblical view of God, humanity, redemption, and the last judgment, and the religious and secularist distortions—even those that profess to be Christian.


Michael Horton is J. Gresham Machen Professor of Systematic Theology and Apologetics at Westminster Seminary in Escondido, California, and author of The Christian Faith: A Systematic Theology for Pilgrims on the Way. "Speaking Out" is Christianity Today's guest opinion column and (unlike an editorial) does not necessarily represent the opinion of the publication.
Copyright ? 2011 Christianity Today. Click for reprint information.

Related Elsewhere:
In another article posted on our site today, Gideon Strauss of the Center for Public Justice examined whether we should celebrate bin Laden's death.
See also our roundups of early Twitter responses andwhat Bible verses became popular after
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