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基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学

 
 
 

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安息日:圣约的末世记号(三)  

2011-06-27 21:01:00|  分类: 圣经神学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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安息日:圣约的末世记号
The Sabbath as an Eschatological Sign of the Covenant



续上

阐述,第二部分:实际的考量
Exposition, Part 2: Practical Considerations


神把主日赐给我们,作为恩典的管道,这是个让我们思想我们如今在基督里属灵的安息,以及未来成全时在天上的安息的机会,那时,我们在地上所有的劳苦都要过去。为了享受这个已经临到/尚未完全的安息,我们在主日最重要的是参加与众圣徒一起的敬拜,进到天上的圣所,与基督相交。每周的敬拜是永恒敬拜的预尝。早期教会在七日的头一日聚集在一起,宣讲神的话,施行圣礼(徒2:42;20:7),因为耶稣在祂复活后出现在门徒当中,首先设立了这个模式。
The Lord's Day has been given to us as a means of grace, an opportunity to reflect upon our present spiritual rest in Christ, and in the future consummation of that rest in heaven, when all our earthly toil will be over. The primary thing that we do on the Lord's Day in order to enjoy this already/not-yet rest is to attend corporate worship with the saints, in order to enter into the heavenly sanctuary and fellowship with Christ. Weekly worship is a foretaste of our eternal worship. The early church gathered together on the first day of the week for the preaching of the Word and the administration of the sacraments (Acts 2:42; 20:7), because Jesus had first established the pattern during his post-resurrection appearances with his disciples.

祂复活的那一日,与两个门徒在往以马忤斯的路上相遇。祂做了什么呢?宣讲救赎历史的道,告诉他们基督的受苦与将来的荣耀。“于是从摩西和众先知起,凡经上所指着自己的话都给他们讲解明白了。”(路24:27)在话语的事奉之后,耶稣借着圣礼的事奉与他们有更深的交通。
On the day of his resurrection, he met with two disciples on the road to Emmaus. And what did he do? He preached a redemptive historical sermon to them, showing them the sufferings of Christ and the glories that would follow. "Beginning with Moses and with all the prophets, he explained to them the things concerning himself in all the Scriptures" (Luke 24:27). And after the ministry of the Word, Jesus came to them in an even deeper way through the ministry of the sacrament.

“到了坐席的时候,耶稣拿起饼来,祝谢了,擘开,递给他们。他们的眼睛明亮了,这才认出他来。”(路24:30-31)之后,门徒彼此说:“在路上,他和我们说话,给我们讲解圣经的时候,我们的心岂不是火热的吗?”(32节)他们把这些事告诉其他的门徒,“两个人就把路上所遇见,和擘饼的时候怎么被他们认出来的事,都述说了一遍。”(35节)。之后,耶稣与众门徒会面,向他们宣告亚伦的祝福“愿你们平安!”(36节),我们今天也在聚会结束时持守这个做法。类似的复活后的相交、聚会和教导,在他处也有报导(太26:32;28:7-10,16-20;路24:40-45;约20:19-20;21:9-14;徒1:3-4;10:41)。
"When he had reclined at table with them, he took bread and blessed it, and breaking it, he gave it to them. Then their eyes were opened and they recognized him" (vv. 30-31). Afterwards, the disciples said, "Were not our hearts burning within us while he was speaking to us on the way, while he was explaining the Scriptures to us?" (v. 32). And they reported these things to the other disciples, relating "how he was recognized by them in the breaking of bread" (v. 35). Later, Jesus met with all the disciples and pronounced the Aaronic benediction, "Peace be to you" (v. 36), and so we continue the practice today at the close of our services. Similar post-resurrection experiences of fellowship, communion, and instruction are reported elsewhere (Matt. 26:32; 28:7-10, 16-20; Luke 24:40-45; John 20:19-29; 21:9-14; Acts 1:3-4; 10:41).

早期教会确信,即使耶稣已经升到天上,祂仍然继续透过话语的事奉和圣礼与祂的门徒相见。从那时起,教会就在七日的头一日与耶稣相会,当我们在所有的经文中宣讲基督的时候,我们就心里火热;当我们擘饼,与复活的救主同席时,我们的眼睛就明亮起来。“七日的第一日,我们聚会擘饼[施行圣礼]的时候”,[保罗] 就与他们讲论(讲道),因为要次日起行,直[讲道]讲到半夜”。(徒20:7)
The early church was convinced that even after Jesus had ascended into heaven, he continued to meet with his disciples through the ministry of the Word and the sacrament. [4] Ever since that time, the church assembles on the first day of the week to meet with Jesus, to have their hearts burn within them as he is proclaimed in all the Scriptures, and to have their eyes opened as they dine with their risen Savior in the breaking of bread. "On the first day of the week, when we were gathered together to break bread [sacrament], Paul began speaking [preaching] to them, intending to leave the next day, and he prolonged his message [sermon] until midnight" (Acts 20:7).

所以在新约中,守安息日的主要原则,是我们应该固定在七日的头一日,与神的子民聚集在一起,参与公众的敬拜,借着恩典的管道与复活的基督相交。
So the primary principle in the practical area of new covenant Sabbath observance is that we ought to be inflexibly committed to gathering together with God's people on the first day of the week for public worship in order to fellowship with the risen Christ through the means of grace.

但是在新约中守安息日还有第二个原则。在这天当中,除了身体的安息之外,还有属灵的安息。身体的安息是预尝我们在复活时会享受到的天上的安息,但是同样是以完全不同的动机。在旧约中,停止工作是一个记号,表明这个事实:他们的工作是进入神的安息的基础。与新约对照,神的子民不是因为这个理由停止身体的工作。的确,如果按照这个理由休息,就是拒绝了基督所完成的工作!
But there is also a secondary principle of new covenant Sabbath observance. On this day we are invited to a physical rest as well as a spiritual rest. The physical rest of the day is a foretaste of the heavenly rest that we will enjoy at the resurrection. But again, the motivation is completely different. In the old covenant, cessation from work was a sign of the fact that their work was the basis for entering God's rest. In the new covenant, by contrast, God's people do not cease from physical work for this reason. Indeed, to rest for this reason would be to reject the finished work of Christ!

因此,在新约中,我们的目的不是绝对停止任何身体的劳动,而是为了能更好地享受属灵的安息。停止工作是信心的行动,藉此承认我们不像世界,在这个世代努力建造恒久的屋宇。我们不必像世人一样追求工作,把我们所有的精力和盼望投资在此生当中。我们在每个礼拜当中都可以停止工作,因为我们是客旅,朝向更美的家乡(来11:8-11,13-16;彼前1:1;2:11)。在新约中我们在一周的开始,而不是在一周结束时停止工作的这个事实,表明当我们安息时,不是安息在我们的工作“里面”(rest ‘in’),有如这份工作最终会带领我们进入天堂,而是安息在我们的工作“之外”(rest ‘from’),认识到基督已经为我们预备了天家。
Thus, in the new covenant, the goal is not to cease absolutely from any and all physical exertion, but in order to enjoy our spiritual rest better. Cessation from work is an act of faith by which we recognize that we are not, like the world, striving to build lasting homes in this present age. We don't have to pursue work the way the world does, investing all our energy and hopes in this life. We can stop from work every week, because we are pilgrims on the way to a better homeland (Heb. 11:8-10, 13-16; 1 Peter 1:1; 2:11). The fact that in the new covenant this cessation from work is placed at the beginning of the week, rather than at the end, highlights the fact that when we rest, we are not really resting "in" our work, as if that work would eventually lead us to heaven, but "from" our work, knowing that Christ has already secured heaven for us.

身为牧师,经常有人问我这类的问题:“在主日可以作XX事吗?”与其直接回答问题,我会建议两个测验,以符合我上面提到的两个原则。第一个测验是,我教导他们要问自己,你所问的活动会不会妨碍到我与神的子民参与共同的敬拜?
As a pastor I often get questions that take the following form: "Is it okay to do X on the Lord's Day?" Instead of answering the question directly, I offer two tests which correspond to and flow from the two above-mentioned principles. In the first test I teach people to ask themselves, Will the activity in question hinder me from participation in the corporate worship of God's people?

任何会影响到我和神的子民共同的敬拜,并从话语的事奉和圣礼获益的事,显然都是无法接受的(除了紧急的事和生病等等之外)。
Anything that interferes with my ability to worship the Lord with God's people and to benefit from the ministry of the Word and sacraments, is obviously unacceptable (with exceptions for emergencies, sickness, etc.).

第二个测验要问的是:问题中的活动是否有助于属灵的安息,提醒我是个寄居者,正朝向末世安息日的安息?有许多活动是我们在其他六天可以做,但是如果在主日做,会妨碍我们灵性成长的。守新约的安息日,不是只有参与公众的敬拜,而是一整天要保持属灵安息的思想状态。
The second test is to ask: Is the activity in question conducive to a spiritually restful frame of mind in which I am reminded that I am a pilgrim on the way to the eschatological Sabbath rest? There are many activities that we may engage in on the other six days, but if done on the Lord's Day might prove to be a spiritual hindrance. The new covenant Sabbath is to be observed not only by attending public worship, but by keeping a spiritually restful frame of mind throughout the day.

第二个测验是主观的,意思不在于没有正确的答案,而在于不同的人会有不同的答案。有些人会觉得某些活动有助于灵性的安息。其他人会觉得某些活动会妨碍或消耗灵性的安息。我认为保罗所说凡不出于信心的就是罪(罗14:23)的原则,必须用在这点。如果你能凭信心从事这个活动,有清洁的良心,并认识到这个活动可以作为“休息站”(rest stop),促进往天国之路整体的趋向,那么,你就应该“不要疑惑”(徒10:20;11:12)地去做。
This second test is subjective, not in the sense that there is no right answer, but in the sense that it will be answered differently by different people. One person may find activity X conducive to spiritual rest. Another may find that activity X inhibits or saps spiritual rest. I think Paul's principle that whatever is not of faith is sin (Rom. 14:23) will need to be applied at this point. If you can do the activity in faith, with a clear conscience, and in the knowledge that it is going to promote the overall tenor of the day as "rest stop" on the road to heaven, then you should do it "without misgivings" (Acts 10:20; 11:12).

注意这第二个测试(凡出于信心的)是出于安息日作为末世记号的本质。安息日是每一周的记号,提醒我们:我们的身份是寄居者,正朝向天上的城。这世界非我家,我只是路经此地。如果这就是安息日的意义,那么,就是在凭信心守安息日,也就是说,利用这一天所提供的机会,从一周的喧嚣当中暂时休息,反思并享受我在基督里的永恒安息。
Notice that this second test (whatever is of faith) flows from the nature of the Sabbath as an eschatological sign. The Sabbath is a weekly reminder of my identity as a pilgrim on the way to the heavenly city. This world is not my home, I'm just passing through. If this is what the Sabbath means, then it is observed by faith, that is, by taking advantage of the opportunity afforded by this day to take a break from the hustle and bustle of the week, and to reflect upon and enjoy my eternal rest in Christ.

既然属灵的安息是靠信心,禁绝某些活动不记得会自动产生这个安息,而参与某些活动也不会自动离开这个安息。当然,有一些外在的刺激是基督徒要避免的,因为这些刺激常常会使我们无法以安静、和平的态度聚焦在基督身上。即使这样,不同的人也会有不同的判断。
Since this spiritual resting occurs by faith, abstaining from certain activities does not automatically produce it, and engaging in certain activities does not automatically detract from it. There are, to be sure, various external stimuli that many Christians will want to avoid, insofar as these stimuli are often found to detract from a calm and peaceful attitude focused upon Christ. But even here, the judgment will vary from person to person.

除了上述的两个测试之外,我的观点(安息日是给圣约群体的一个末世记号)还有另一个意涵。在上面的第12点中,我说到信徒不应该禁绝一些活动,只因为这些活动会让非信徒在安息日工作。这不是说所有让非信徒工作的活动都是合理的理由。而是说,不能只基于这个考量,来评估一些活动是否合适。
In addition to the two tests above, there is another implication of my view that the Sabbath is an eschatological sign for the covenant community. In point 12 above, I state that believers should not abstain from certain activities solely on the ground that such activity may cause unbelievers to work on the Sabbath. This does not mean that any activity which makes unbelievers work is legitimate. Rather, it means that this concern cannot be the sole consideration when evaluating the appropriateness of any given activity.

我的观点会迫使个别的基督徒根据内心做出以下的评估——这个活动是会妨碍、还是促进我在那天的属灵安息?一个明显且具体的应用是:基督徒应该感到能自由地在主日去吃馆子,作为他们安息的一部分。我认为我们的妻子应该特别会感谢这个机会,能从占据她们其他六天的家务事中得到休息。
My view forces the individual Christian to make such evaluations on internal grounds - does it hinder or promote my spiritual resting on the day? One obvious concrete application of this is that Christians should feel free to go out to eat at a restaurant on the Lord's Day as part of their rest. I should think that our wives would be particularly appreciative of the opportunity to rest from some of the domestic labors that occupy them the other six days.

在安息日的事上,教会纪律何时适用呢?有鉴于在集体崇拜之外关于如何圣化安息日必然会有不同的意见,我相信在这个领域,堂会(session)应该容许一些自由。这不是说不应该给一些吩咐。神的子民应当受到圣经原则的教导,但是应该容许个人或家庭自行应用。唯一应该详细说明的具体应用是在七日的头一日与其他圣徒聚集,共同参与集体敬拜的命令。因此,堂会应该为那些弃绝神的子民的集会的人保留使用教会管教的权利。
When is church discipline appropriate in Sabbath matters? Because of the differences that inevitably arise regarding Sabbath sanctification outside of corporate worship, I believe that sessions should allow freedom in this area. This doesn't mean that no instruction should be given. People should be taught the biblical principles, but the application should be left up to the individual or family. The only specific application that should be spelled out is the command to gather with the saints on the first day of the week for corporate worship. Therefore sessions should reserve the use of church discipline for those who forsake the assembly of God's people.

我关心的主要是关于教会的权力,以及在话语事奉中所说的,和透过教会管教所执行的,两者之间的关系。如果牧师在讲道中教导禁绝某事是第四诫必然的意涵,那么,任何在安息日做这件事的人就必须受到管教。宣讲一件事却不照着执行,是在发出自我矛盾的信息。教会所拒绝强制执行的任何道德教训,就是我们所说的没有圣经根据的道德教训。对忠心出席教会,只是没有遵守这些教训的人执行教会管教,是没有圣经根据的;那是把已经得释放的神的子民,重新放回到旧约软弱和乞丐式的元素里面,严厉地强制安息日的规条。
My main concern has to do with the issue of church power, and the relationship between what is said in the ministry of the Word and what is implemented by means of church discipline. [5] If the pastor preaches that abstaining from X is a mandatory implication of the fourth commandment, it follows that anyone who does X on the Sabbath may or ought to be disciplined. To preach one thing and practice another with respect to discipline sends contradictory messages. Any ethical teaching which the church refuses to enforce is ethical teaching which we are saying is biblically doubtful. Disciplining members who are otherwise faithful in church attendance is unwarranted by the New Testament, and puts the liberated children of God back under the weak and beggarly elements of the old covenant with its strict enforcement of the Sabbath.

我们不该感到惊讶,充满整个旧约秩序之束缚的灵和密码般的特殊性,已经不是新约安息日的特色了,特别是安息日的严格执行。新约神的子民不再是小孩,需要外在的石版来管制规范他们的行为。我们不再是律法管教下的奴隶;在基督里,我们已经得到国度里儿子的地位(加3:25-26;4:1-7)。因此,神的儿子们有更多的自由,可以决定他们如何分别主日为圣。
We should not be surprised that the new covenant Sabbath is less characterized by the spirit of bondage and code-like specificity that stamped the whole old covenant order and especially its stringent enforcement of the Sabbath. The new covenant people of God are no longer minors needing the external tablets of stone to govern and regulate their conduct. We are no longer slaves under the disciplinarian of the law; in Christ we have taken up our place as sons in the kingdom (Gal. 3:25-26; 4:1-7). There is therefore much more freedom for the sons of God to determine how they will sanctify the Lord's Day.

想要详细规定如何守新约安息日的人,是让自己回到摩西律法的束缚当中。这样做就是错失了安息日作为照亮信徒前往天国之路的灯的真正价值。经历并享受此安息日的意义,比起被塔木德的细目所烧尽更为重要,也更有益处。的确,我害怕今天的新清教徒太强调字面上停止劳力与娱乐的诡辩,以致于把安息日丰富的益处倒空,把它变成了工作之约。那些在实际问题上没那么严格,而是用这一天来享受他们在基督里永恒安息之预尝的人,才是真正守安息日的人。
Those who want detailed legislation for new covenant Sabbath observance are in danger of putting themselves back in bondage to the Mosaic Law. To do so would be to miss the real value of the Sabbath as a lamp lighting the believer's way to heaven. Experiencing and enjoying this eschatological significance of the Sabbath is far more important, and beneficial, than becoming consumed with Talmudic details. Indeed, I fear that the neo-Puritans of today so emphasize the casuistry of the literal cessation from labor and recreation that they are in danger of emptying the Sabbath of its rich benefits by turning it into a covenant of works. Those who may be less strict in practical matters, but who are using the day to enjoy a foretaste of their eternal rest in Christ, are
the true Sabbatarians.

让人在安息日做和他们日常工作相关的事合理吗?我相信在一些情况下,这样的工作是必要的,以避免经济上的困难。
Is it ever legitimate for someone to do work related to their regular employment on the Sabbath? I believe that in some cases, such work may be necessary in order to avoid financial hardship.

我们如何决定怎样才算是经济困难呢?每个人都必须以自己的良心在上帝面前作出决定。对物质的欲望显然不会是合理的理由。牧师告诫那些似乎有错误优先顺序的人,并无不当。但是如果他们说已经用祷告仔细考虑过这件事,是出于信心的行动,而且如果他们忠心地参与教会,我不认为堂会行使正式的管教是恰当的。即使(或特别是)在可疑的例子中,也应该维护良心的自由。不过,牧师应该鼓励那些觉得他们必须在礼拜天工作的人,尽量安排他们的工作,好让他们能参加例行的教会聚会。
How do we determine what constitutes financial hardship? Each individual will have to make those decisions conscientiously before the Lord. A materialistic desire for wealth obviously would not be a legitimate reason. It would not be inappropriate for a pastor to admonish those who appear to have the wrong priorities in this matter. But if they reply that they have prayerfully considered this matter and are acting in faith, and if they are faithful in church attendance, I do not believe it would be appropriate for a session to exercise formal discipline. Liberty of conscience must be preserved even in (or especially in) doubtful cases. However, pastors should encourage people who feel they must work on Sundays to schedule their work in such a way that they are not prevented from regular church attendance.

在安息日应该做哪些积极的事呢?集体敬拜明显是最基本、没有商量的。除了出席教会外,许多灵性的操练,包括私人的和全家一起的操练,对我们在主日享受在基督里属灵的安息也是很有益的。阅读圣经值得大力推荐。我们许多人在平日太忙,很少有时间深入默想神的话。主日提供一个绝佳的机会,坐下来阅读较长篇幅的经文,可以让我们在较广的背景中明白经文,得到裨益,而不是聚焦在简短的一段灵修经文或几句经文上面。例如,一口气把圣经一卷书全部读完,是非常值得的操练。
What are some positive things we should do on the Sabbath? Corporate worship is obviously primary and non-negotiable. In addition to church attendance, various spiritual exercises, both privately and as a family, are also conducive to enjoying our spiritual rest in Christ on the Lord's Day. Bible reading is highly commended. Many of us are so busy during the week that we rarely have much time to meditate deeply on the Word of God. The Lord's Day affords an excellent opportunity to sit down and read lengthier portions of Scripture, enabling us to get the rich benefits of seeing the text in its larger context rather than focusing devotionally on a brief paragraph or handful of verses. For example, it is a rewarding exercise to read an entire book of the Bible in one sitting.

主日也提供一个机会教导我们的圣约儿女基本的教义——不只是正式地背诵要理问答,也通过对讲道的讨论,阅读圣经等等来学习。我也鼓励教会成员邀请其他会员和访客,在下午或傍晚到家中团契。如果有机会做慈惠事工(例如,探望无法外出或住在贫民窟的人),也是值得赞扬的。如果你的教会有夜间的崇拜服事,我也建议参加第二堂崇拜,虽然这不是绝对必要,因为圣经并没有吩咐在主日要参加两次崇拜。
The Lord's Day also affords the opportunity to catechize our covenant children - not merely in the formal sense of memorizing the catechism, but informally as well, through discussions about the sermon, the Bible reading, and so on. I also encourage members of the church to invite other members and visitors over to their house for afternoon/evening fellowship. If there are opportunities for good works of mercy (e.g., visiting shut-ins or people on skid row), that is also to be commended. If your church has an evening service, I would also recommend attending the second service, although I do not see it as an absolute requirement, since there is no Scriptural command to attend worship twice on the Lord's Day.

不过,在某些方面,参加晚间崇拜会让其他事变得困难,例如与其他圣徒的交通,因为时间实在有限(如今,往返教会会花很多时间)。每个个人或家庭必须在主面前好好祷告来做这些决定。想在每个主日做所有的事是很吸引人的想法,但是我们必须记得,身体的休息是属灵休息一个很重要的部分。
In some ways, however, attending an evening service can make it difficult to do the other things like catechizing and fellowshiping with the saints, since there is only so much time in the day (significant commutes to and from church are also increasingly a factor today). Each individual or family will have to make these decisions prayerfully before the Lord. It is tempting to want to do everything every Lord's Day, but we must also keep in mind that physical rest is a significant part of spiritual rest.

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