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基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学

 
 
 

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安息日:圣约的末世记号(五)  

2011-06-29 10:20:00|  分类: 圣经神学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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安息日:圣约的末世记号
The Sabbath as an Eschatological Sign of the Covenant



续上


与其他立场比较
Comparison with other positions

A. 威敏思特信仰告白
A. The Westminster Confession


威敏思特信仰告白21:7说:“一般而言,把适当的时间分别出来敬拜上帝,乃是自然之理;同样,上帝在圣经中用一种积极的、道德的、永久的诫命,特别指定七日的一日为安息日,要万世万代的人都向祂遵守此日为圣日。这圣日从世界的起头到基督的复活都是一周的末一日;从基督的复活起,改为一周的第一日,在圣经中称为主日,而且要持守它作为基督徒的安息日,直到世界的末了。”
The Westminster Confession XXI:7 states: As it is the law of nature, that, in general, a due proportion of time be set apart for the worship of God; so, in his Word, by a positive, moral and perpetual commandment binding all men in all ages, he hath particularly appointed one day in seven, for a sabbath, to be kept holy unto him: which, from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, was the last day of the week; and, from the resurrection of Christ, was changed into the first day of the week, which, in Scripture, is called the Lord's day, and is to be continued to the end of the world, as the Christian sabbath.

如果这篇论文所提出的释经是正确的,安息日是“积极的、道德的、永久的诫命……要万世万代的人都向祂遵守……”就是不符合圣经的。我的意见是信条必须修正,使它符合圣经的教导,即安息日是给圣约群体的末世记号。
If the exegesis presented in this paper is correct, the statement that the Sabbath is "a positive, moral and perpetual commandment binding all men in all ages" is not Scriptural. I am of the opinion that the Confession ought to be revised to bring it into line with the Scriptural teaching that the Sabbath is an eschatological sign for the covenant community.

“一般而言,把适当的时间分别出来敬拜上帝,乃是自然之理”这个陈述是对的。但是遵守每周的休息日,和要求把一天分别出来敬拜神是不同的。每周的休息日也许和指定给圣约群体的敬拜刚好在同一天,但是安息日本身是一个末世记号。这个记号包含了明确的安息之应许,这应许是赐给得此记号的子民的(来4:9)。
The statement that "it is the law of nature, that, in general, a due proportion of time be set apart for the worship of God" (WCF XXI:7) is true. But the observance of a weekly day of rest is not the same thing as the requirement to set aside time for the worship of God. A weekly day of rest may coincide with the appointed worship of the covenant community, but the Sabbath per se is an eschatological sign containing an express promise of rest to those who are given the sign (Heb. 4:9).

我对上述段落的后半没有异议:“这圣日从世界的起头到基督的复活都是一周的末一日;从基督的复活起,改为一周的第一日,在圣经中称为主日,而且要持守它作为基督徒的安息日,直到世界的末了。”对我来说,这似乎是个非常平衡且合乎圣经的陈述。不过,我对这个陈述背后的释经,并不完全同意。例如小要理问答,问答58:
58问:第四条诫命吩咐什么?
答:第四条诫命吩咐人将圣经所规定的时日都向上帝守为圣;祂特意指定七日内一整天叫人向祂守为圣安息日。
I have no problem with the second half of the above paragraph: "which, from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, was the last day of the week; and, from the resurrection of Christ, was changed into the first day of the week, which, in Scripture, is called the Lord's day, and is to be continued to the end of the world, as the Christian sabbath." That is a very balanced and biblical statement it seems to me. However, I'm not in complete agreement with all of the exegesis that stands behind that statement. Consider Shorter Catechism question 58:
Q. What is required in the fourth commandment?
A. The fourth commandment requireth the keeping holy to God such set times as he hath appointed in his Word; expressly one whole day in seven, to be a holy sabbath to himself.

威敏思特圣徒的意思是,第四诫只是定出比例:“七日内一整天”守为圣安息日,归给神。但是出埃及记20:9-11清楚命令要守第七日。第七日安息日者在这点上是更忠实的释经者。虽然他们错过了救赎历史,从旧约到新约的转换,但是他们正确地解释了第四诫命的本身。然而,第七日安息日者与第一日安息日者都犯了错,把十诫视为“公义的完美准则”,约束着所有的人,包括新约神的子民。第一日安息日者是把第四诫重新解读来避免守第七日,以为仅仅是定出比例,这个误导的尝试,理应让他们重新思考这个前提,即把十诫当作是超越时间的道德律法的总结。
According to the Westminster divines, the fourth commandment only sets forth the ratio - "expressly one whole day in seven" is to be kept as a holy Sabbath unto the Lord. But Exodus 20:9-11 clearly requires seventh day observance. The seventh-day Sabbatarians are more faithful exegetes at this point. Although they miss the redemptive historical shift that occurred in the transition from the old covenant to the new, they correctly interpret the fourth commandment itself. The seventh-day Sabbatarians and the first-day Sabbatarians both err, however, in viewing the ten commandments as "a perfect rule of righteousness" binding on all men, including the new covenant people of God. The misguided attempt on the part of first-day Sabbatarians to avoid seventh-day observance in the new covenant age by re-interpreting the fourth commandment as merely setting forth the ratio ought to have pushed them to reconsider the premise that the ten commandments are a summary of the timeless moral law of God.

也许威敏思特圣徒在处理第四诫时最严重的错误,是他们似乎在暗示,无论安息日是在周六或周日,都没有差别。其意涵似乎是虽然日子改了,安息日的本质并没有变化。改日子只是外在施行的表面,这就模糊了旧约安息日内在的工作原则(工作,然后休息)和新约主日的信心原则(休息,然后工作)之间的强烈对比。
Perhaps the gravest error in the divines' handling of the fourth commandment is that they seem to suggest that it doesn't make much difference whether the Sabbath is observed on Saturday or Sunday. The implication seems to be that while the day may have changed, the nature of the Sabbath itself has not. The change of day is a superficial matter of outward administration, thus blurring the sharp contrast between the works principle inherent in the old covenant Sabbath (work, then rest) and the faith principle inherent in the new covenant Lord's Day (rest, then work).

在清教徒对安息日的看法中,新约的安息日没有什么“新意”。它只是同一个旧约的安息日改换到周日而已。以一个欣赏圣经救赎历史本质的人来说,我相信这个做法是不足的。在这个议题上,正确地从救赎历史思考这个问题,会迫使我们考虑此改变的意义,即从旧约时期过渡到新约时期,从以色列应该守的工作之约,过渡到基督已经成就的工作之约。
In the Puritan view of the Sabbath there is nothing "new" about the new covenant day of rest. It is just the same, old covenant Sabbath, shifted to Sunday. As one who has come to appreciate the redemptive historical nature of the Scriptures, I believe this approach is deficient. A proper redemptive historical consideration of this subject demands that we consider the significance of the change in terms of the epochal transition from the old covenant to the new, from a covenant of works to be kept by Israel, to the covenant of works fulfilled by Christ.

此外,信仰告白倾向于把安息日的诫命贬低到“何时”敬拜,如此就忽略或减低了安息日的末世意义。并不是只有我一个人发现到威敏思特标准所呈现的安息日的弱点。
In addition, the Confession tends to reduce the Sabbath command to the issue of the "when" of worship, thus ignoring or downplaying the eschatological significance of the Sabbath. I am not alone is detecting a weakness in the presentation of the Sabbath in the Westminster Standards.

美国正统长老会的总会(OPC General Assembly)安息日委员会的报告同样指出,威敏思特标准缺乏关于安息日之末世意义的教导:
The OPC General Assembly Report of the Committee on Sabbath Matters points out the lack of any teaching on the eschatological significance of the Sabbath:

每周的安息日是末世的记号。这个真理是希伯来书3:7-4:13教导的中心,也是整个圣经关于安息日的教导最基本的,但是这个真理在威敏思特信条和要理问答中,并没有表达出来。原因似乎是因为信仰标准提到安息日的诫命,主要的考虑是它对公众和私下敬拜更具体的事的意义。
The weekly Sabbath is an eschatological sign. This truth, central to the teaching of Hebrews 3:7- 4:13 as well as fundamental to the entire biblical revelation concerning the Sabbath, does not find expression in the Westminster Confession of Faith and Catechisms. The reason for this would appear to be that the Standards mention the Sabbath commandment primarily in terms of its bearing on the more specific matter of public and private worship.

我怀疑此非末世性的安息日的看法,是信仰告白的作者们认为安息日也适用于非信徒的一部分原因。如果你一开始就把安息日定义为只是把一天分别出来敬拜上帝,这么说就是合理的,因为所有的人都有义务要敬拜上帝,所以他们也有义务把一天分别出来,尽这个责任。威敏思特圣徒所承继的、教会改教家的中世纪基督国度的神治国家观念,在这个想法中,扮演了一个角色。社会中所有的人都有义务要参加公众敬拜。安息日仅仅是所有的社会必须“停摆”的一天,以确保(透过“蓝色律法”的立法)所有的人都参加公众敬拜。
I suspect that this non-eschatological view of the Sabbath is part of the reason why the authors of the Confession thought that the Sabbath was applicable to the unbeliever. If you begin by defining the Sabbath as a day set aside for the worship of God, it makes sense to argue that, since all men are obligated to worship God, they are obligated also to set aside the day in order to fulfill that duty. The medieval, theocratic notion of Christendom that the divines inherited from the magisterial reformers undoubtedly played a role in this thinking. All of society has an obligation to attend public worship. The Sabbath is merely the day when all of society must "shut down" in order to ensure (by means of "blue law" legislation) that public worship is attended by all.

然而安息日最基本的是末世安息的记号,敬拜只是这个末世安息已经实现的层面,很显然,安息日只属于那些靠信心进入此安息的人。这让我们对教会的敬拜有更准确的看法。敬拜不是一个以创造为根据的社会责任,而是整个教会的圣约聚会,兼具战斗性和胜利的喜悦,有在天上无数的天使,以及被立为安息日的王的主耶稣基督的陪伴。在教会与社会,神的城与人的城之间有准确的区分,会使我们对敬拜和安息日有更崇高的看法。的确,安息日就成为圣约的记号,把神的子民从世界中分别出来,彰显教会是客旅,不是为这个将要过去的世代而活,而是为了将要来的世代的荣耀而活。
But if the Sabbath is fundamentally a sign of our eschatological rest, with worship being a realized dimension of that eschatological rest, it becomes clear that the Sabbath belongs only to those who are entering that rest by faith. This in turn sharpens our view of what is really taking place in the church's worship. Worship isn't a societal duty grounded in creation, but a covenant meeting of the whole church both militant and triumphant, accompanied by myriads of angels, with the Sabbath-enthroned Lord Jesus Christ in heaven. A sharper distinction between church and society, between the city of God and the city of man, leads to a much more exalted view both of worship and of the Sabbath. Indeed, the Sabbath then becomes a sign of the covenant which distinguishes God's people from the world, demonstrating that the church is a pilgrim people living not for this passing age, but for the glory of the age to come.

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