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基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学

 
 
 

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神学问答35:工作之约是否有圣经根据?  

2011-07-31 01:46:00|  分类: 改革宗神学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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35. 工作之约是否有圣经根据?


Is there a biblical basis for the Covenant of Works?
诚之获授权翻译。
原文载于:http://www.monergism.com/thethreshold/articles/onsite/qna/covworks.html

虽然“工作之约”这个词不是圣经的用词,而且虽然“圣约”这个字没有用来描述神与亚当在伊甸园里的关系,我们有几个理由相信这个概念是非常合乎圣经的,即使这个词没有出现在圣经里。首先,圣经把创造本身描绘为与神存在在一种圣约的关系之中(耶利米书33:20-26);而若创造在一般的意义上是神在约里所设立的,那么,人作为按照神的形象被造,是被造界的高峰,他被造的本身,就何等地更加必然是与神有着立约的关系的呢?
Although the term “Covenant of Works” is not a biblical designation, and although the word “covenant” is not used to describe God's relationship with Adam in the Garden, there are several reasons for believing that the idea is eminently biblical, even if the precise term is not. First, creation itself is portrayed in the scriptures as existing in a covenantal relationship with God (Jeremiah 33:20-26); and if creation in general is established in covenant with God, how much more must the climactic figure of creation, the man created in God's own image, necessarily be in covenant with God from his very creation?

第二,创世记中关于人的创造,非常清楚地展示了作为圣约特色的所有元素:首先是一段序言,强调祂先前的工作中所显明出来的伟大(1:1-27;2:5-9);第二、有一些特殊的条例,要放在那些与神进入圣约关系的人身上(1:28;2:15-17);第三、不顺服时的负面奖惩(sanction):死亡(2:18),这成为我们理解第四点的保证;第四、顺服所隐含的正面奖惩:永生(以上的分析取自Peter Golding,《圣约神学》。
Second, the account of man's creation in Genesis very clearly displays all the elements that characterize later covenants: first, a preamble emphasizing the greatness of God as seen in his prior works (1:1-27; 2:5-9); second, particular stipulations placed upon those with whom God is entering into relationship (1:28; 2:15-17); third, the negative sanction of death, in the case of disobedience (2:18); which gives warrant for understanding, fourth, an implied positive sanction of eternal life for obedience (analysis above taken largely from Peter Golding, Covenant Theology, Mentor 2008, p. 118).

第三、创世记载提供了似乎是作为圣约的记号或圣礼的描述:生命树。
Third, the creation account provides a description of what appears to be functioning as a covenant sign, or sacrament, in the Tree of Life.

第四、何西阿书6:7所有可能的翻译是:“他们都像亚当背约”,给我们最确定的指示,说明亚当被造时,神与他立了约。
Fourth, the most likely translation of Hosea 6:7, “They like Adam have transgressed the covenant,” gives a definite indication that a covenant was made with Adam at the time of his creation.

第五,也是最重要的,罗马书5;12-21的语言和教导,要求我们把亚当理解成我们盟约的头,或圣约的代表。在这段对圣约神学来说,是非常重要的经文中,亚当被描述为我们第一个盟约的头,他的失败使我们在神面前都成为有罪;但是与基督对比,基督,我们第二位盟约的头,把完美的义呈献给神,祂的成功使我们在神面前可以成为义。因此,如果基督在恩典之约中是作为盟约的得胜者,成就了我们的救恩,为我们完成了圣约的条件;那么,这段经文就无可争辩地将亚当放在相同的角色中,也就是作为我们盟约的头,成功地(或失败了)为我们完成了圣约的条件。如此,他在伊甸园的失败,就表现为对圣约的悖逆;而这个圣约,很早就被称为“工作之约”了。
Fifth, and most importantly, the language and teaching of Romans 5:12-21 demands an understanding of Adam as our federal head, or covenant representative. In this passage, which is monumentally important for Covenant Theology, Adam is depicted as our first federal head, whose failure rendered us all guilty before God; but in contrast to Adam, Christ, our second federal head, rendered to God a perfect righteousness, and his success established us as righteous before God. If, therefore, Christ was accomplishing our salvation as a federal champion in the Covenant of Grace, whose terms he fulfilled for us; then this passage indisputably casts Adam in the same role, that is, as our federal head undertaking (but failing) to fulfill the terms of a covenant for us. Hence, his failure in the Garden was manifestly a transgression of a covenant; and this covenant has long been called the Covenant of Works.

有些神学家相信“工作之约”减损了神与人之间原本存在的个人与美好的关系,并降低上帝赐创造开始就向人显出的,人所不配的善意与仁慈;因此,有些人建议用其他的词来代替“工作之约”,包括:“自然之约”,“生命之约”,“创造之约”,以及“伊甸园之约”等等。
Some theologians believe that the term “Covenant of Works” detracts from the personal and favorable relationship that first existed between God and man, and de-emphasizes the unmerited benevolence and kindness of God toward men from the beginning of creation; and so, certain other terms have been suggested instead of “Covenant of Works,” including, “Covenant of Nature,” “Covenant of Life,” “Covenant of Creation,” and “Covenant of Eden”.

Related Reading

The Covenant of Works by Wayne Grudem
Is There More Than One Way to God? by John Hendryx
Do This and Live by John Hendryx
What God Requires of You by John Hendryx
The Importance of Jesus' Fulfilling All Righeousness For Us by John Hendryx
Understanding the Covenant of Works by Matt Perman
Clearing Confusion Over the Covenant of Works by Matt Perman
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