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基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学





2011-07-03 20:45:00|  分类: 圣经神学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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The Sabbath as an Eschatological Sign of the Covenant


B. 欧陆看法
B. The Continental View

Heidelberg Catechism, question 103:
Q. What does God require in the fourth commandment?
A. First, that the ministry of the gospel and Christian education be maintained, and that I diligently attend church, especially on the Lord's day, to hear the Word of God, to participate in the holy Sacraments, to call publicly upon the Lord, and to give Christian service to those in need. Second, that I cease from my evil works all the days of my life, allow the Lord to work in me through his Spirit, and thus begin in this life the eternal Sabbath.

In terms of practice, my view is basically the same, since I want to place the accent on corporate worship. I agree with the continental view that the fundamental duty of the Sabbath command for the New Testament believer is fulfilled by diligently attending church to hear the Word of God and participate in the sacraments. In every passage where the New Testament mentions the Lord's day or the first day of the week, it is always with reference to fellowship with the risen Christ by means of the Word and the sacrament (Luke 24:1, 13-53; John 20:19-29; Acts 10:41; 20:7; 1 Cor. 16:2; Rev. 1:10).

In addition to this focus on the centrality of corporate worship in Sabbath sanctification, I also agree with the Continental view in not bringing the new covenant church under the more stringent requirements of the old covenant Sabbath. The Puritan doctrine of the Sabbath includes a strong emphasis on literal resting from labor, recreation, and other cultural activity. The Continental view, by contrast, "spiritualizes" the rest required in the old covenant. It is no longer a literal ceasing from worldly employments and recreations, as in the Puritan Sabbath, but a purely spiritual rest in Christ.

Of course, the Puritans would not have viewed the matter as an either/or proposition, and would have wanted to stress that resting from worldly employments is one means by which we enjoy our spiritual rest in Christ. But I believe the Continental view is partially on the right track in placing the accent and priority on the believer's spiritual rest. This is in keeping with the progression of redemptive history from Israel's life in the land to the new covenant's enjoyment of rest in Christ.

However, the Continental view suffers from a major flaw right at this point: the works from which we are to rest are considered to be our evil works. This is based on a misunderstanding of Heb. 4:10; 9:14; Matt. 11:28-30. The result of this interpretation is that every day is a Sabbath rest in Christ for the Christian. But this makes non-sense out of the Sabbath command.

For the Sabbath ordinance at creation was a resting from things that are lawful on the other six days. Therefore, in spite of my fundamental sympathy for the Continental view, at least as an alternative to the "Mosaicizing" tendency of the Puritan Sabbath, I maintain that there is an aspect of our rest which involves resting from things that are lawful on the other six days. This fits in perfectly with the idea that the Sabbath is a weekly reminder of our eternal rest in the consummation, for the rest that we shall enter at the consummation, and of which the weekly Sabbath is a sign, is not a rest from sin merely (though that is included) but a rest from our pilgrim travails in this present evil age.

Another weakness of the Continental view - in my opinion, this weakness constitutes its ultimate invalidation - is that it fails to appreciate the implications of the Sabbath as a creation ordinance (Gen. 2:2-3; Exod. 20:11). Since the Continental position interprets the Sabbath not as a creation ordinance but as part of the ceremonial law, the Sabbath strictly speaking has been abrogated in the new covenant.

其含意是,主日作为基督徒敬拜的日子只属于教会的权柄。教会大可以选择另外一天,或甚至不同的每周的循环。最终,教会把基督徒的礼拜天设立为敬拜的日子,主要是受这两件事的引导:1) 教会需要有一天来敬拜,以及 2) 需要有一天进行福音与基督教教义的宣导(以“尽我在福音上和学校里的职责”)。
The implication is that the Lord's Day as the day of Christian worship is of ecclesiastical authority only. The church could have chosen another day, or even a different weekly cycle. Ultimately, the church's establishment of the Christian Sunday as a day of worship is guided primarily by the church's need for a day of worship and for the propagation of the gospel and Christian doctrine ("that the ministry of the gospel and Christian education be maintained").

对比之下,我相信因为它是根源于创造的末世指标,在新约中(七日的第一日)守安息日就是圣约的要求。在最早的圣约中所提供的安息日的安息,已经由新约中的第二个亚当,透过祂的复活/升天为我们完成了。教会不只可以,也必须要在一周的第一天把它分别出来敬拜神,进到天上神治的基督的安息(heavenly theocratic Sabbath of Christ),这是圣约所要求的,客旅教会的末世目标之每周的记号。
By contrast, I believe that, because it is an eschatological pointer grounded in creation, observance of the Sabbath in the new covenant (on the first day of the week) is covenantally demanded. The Sabbath rest offered in the primeval covenant has been achieved by the Second Adam in the new covenant via his resurrection/ascension. The church not only may but must set aside the first day of the week for worship in order to enter into the heavenly theocratic Sabbath of Christ, as a covenantally demanded weekly sign of the pilgrim church's eschatological goal.

基督的复活,以及我们与祂一同复活,是永恒中最后安息之确立的形式(inaugurated form)。清教徒的教义,相对于欧陆的看法,正确地指出释经的证据,即摩西之约的安息日追溯到创世的律例,因此正确地显明第四诫不只是仪式性的。欧陆的看法,相对于清教徒的看法,正确地指向释经的证据,即基督徒的安息日主要是在基督里属灵的安息,因此正确地显明主日不只是把摩西之约的安息日调换到一周中另一处。
The resurrection of Christ, and our co-resurrection with him, is the inaugurated form of the final Sabbath in eternity. The Puritan doctrine, as over against the Continental, rightly points to the exegetical evidence that the Mosaic Sabbath reaches back to the creation ordinance, thus correctly demonstrating that the fourth commandment is not merely ceremonial. The Continental view, as over against the Puritan, rightly points to the exegetical evidence that the Christian Sabbath is a primarily spiritual rest in Christ, thus correctly demonstrating that the Lord's Day is not merely the Mosaic Sabbath moved to a different position in the week.

The Puritan view fails to recognize the eschatological significance of the Sabbath, and thus is blind to the dramatic changes that of necessity occur when that eschatology reaches its definitive fulfillment in Christ. The Continental view rightly senses the eschatological significance of the Sabbath, but due to its failure to link that eschatology to the creational covenant of works, the believer's Sabbath rest in Christ is pure "already," untempered by the pilgrim's longing for the "not-yet."

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