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基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学

 
 
 

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安息日:圣约的末世记号(六)  

2011-07-03 20:45:00|  分类: 圣经神学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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安息日:圣约的末世记号
The Sabbath as an Eschatological Sign of the Covenant



续上


B. 欧陆看法
B. The Continental View


海德堡要理问答,问答103:
问:神在第四条诫命里命令什么?
答:第一,我要尽我在福音上和学校里的职责;我应当殷勤上教会,特别是在安息日,学习神的话语,使用圣礼,在会众前求告神,并周济贫穷。第二,我一生的日子要止息作恶,让主用祂的灵在我里面工作,这样,今生便开始了永恒的安息。
Heidelberg Catechism, question 103:
Q. What does God require in the fourth commandment?
A. First, that the ministry of the gospel and Christian education be maintained, and that I diligently attend church, especially on the Lord's day, to hear the Word of God, to participate in the holy Sacraments, to call publicly upon the Lord, and to give Christian service to those in need. Second, that I cease from my evil works all the days of my life, allow the Lord to work in me through his Spirit, and thus begin in this life the eternal Sabbath.

就做法而言,我的看法基本上相同,因为我把重点放在集体敬拜上。我同意欧陆的看法,对新约信徒来说,安息日诫命最基本的责任是殷勤地参加教会,聆听神的话,并参加圣礼。新约中所有提到主日或七日第一日的经文,总是提到透过神的道与圣礼,与复活基督的相交(路24:1,13-53;约20:19-29;徒10:41;20:7;林前16:2;启1:10)。
In terms of practice, my view is basically the same, since I want to place the accent on corporate worship. I agree with the continental view that the fundamental duty of the Sabbath command for the New Testament believer is fulfilled by diligently attending church to hear the Word of God and participate in the sacraments. In every passage where the New Testament mentions the Lord's day or the first day of the week, it is always with reference to fellowship with the risen Christ by means of the Word and the sacrament (Luke 24:1, 13-53; John 20:19-29; Acts 10:41; 20:7; 1 Cor. 16:2; Rev. 1:10).

除了此焦点(即安息日的圣化是以集体敬拜为中心)外,我也同意欧陆的看法,没有要求新约教会遵守旧约安息日的严厉要求。清教徒之安息日的教义,强调字面的休息,不可从事休闲娱乐和其他的文化活动。相对的,欧陆观点把旧约所要求的安息“属灵化”。不再从字面上停止世界的工作和休闲(如同清教徒的安息日一样),而是纯粹在基督里属灵的安息。
In addition to this focus on the centrality of corporate worship in Sabbath sanctification, I also agree with the Continental view in not bringing the new covenant church under the more stringent requirements of the old covenant Sabbath. The Puritan doctrine of the Sabbath includes a strong emphasis on literal resting from labor, recreation, and other cultural activity. The Continental view, by contrast, "spiritualizes" the rest required in the old covenant. It is no longer a literal ceasing from worldly employments and recreations, as in the Puritan Sabbath, but a purely spiritual rest in Christ.

当然,清教徒不会把这件事看作非彼即此的命题,也强调从世界的工作休息是我们享受在基督里属灵安息的一种方式。但是我相信欧陆的看法部分是正确的,它强调、并把信徒属灵的安息放在最优先的地位。这符合救赎历史的进展,从以色列在迦南地的生活,到新约在基督里所享受的安息。
Of course, the Puritans would not have viewed the matter as an either/or proposition, and would have wanted to stress that resting from worldly employments is one means by which we enjoy our spiritual rest in Christ. But I believe the Continental view is partially on the right track in placing the accent and priority on the believer's spiritual rest. This is in keeping with the progression of redemptive history from Israel's life in the land to the new covenant's enjoyment of rest in Christ.

然而,欧陆的看法恰恰在这点上也有一个重大的错误:我们该休息停止的工作被认为是邪恶的。这来自对希伯来书4:10;9:14;马太福音11:28-30的误解。这种解释的结果是,对基督徒来说,每一天都是在基督里的安息日的安息。
However, the Continental view suffers from a major flaw right at this point: the works from which we are to rest are considered to be our evil works. This is based on a misunderstanding of Heb. 4:10; 9:14; Matt. 11:28-30. The result of this interpretation is that every day is a Sabbath rest in Christ for the Christian. But this makes non-sense out of the Sabbath command.

因为创世时安息日的律例是:停止那些在其他的六日所做的合法的事。因此,虽然我对欧陆的看法基本上是同情的,至少是作为清教徒“摩西化”倾向的一种选择,我主张我们的安息有一个层面是从其他六日中合法的事情上休息。这和下面的观念完全吻合:安息日是每周的提醒,提醒我们在末世成全时的永恒安息,因为我们在末世成全时将要进入的安息(每一周的安息日的安息)是一个记号;它不只是从罪恶中休息(虽然这也包括在内),而是在这个邪恶的世代中,从我们客旅的劳苦工作中得到休息。
For the Sabbath ordinance at creation was a resting from things that are lawful on the other six days. Therefore, in spite of my fundamental sympathy for the Continental view, at least as an alternative to the "Mosaicizing" tendency of the Puritan Sabbath, I maintain that there is an aspect of our rest which involves resting from things that are lawful on the other six days. This fits in perfectly with the idea that the Sabbath is a weekly reminder of our eternal rest in the consummation, for the rest that we shall enter at the consummation, and of which the weekly Sabbath is a sign, is not a rest from sin merely (though that is included) but a rest from our pilgrim travails in this present evil age.

欧陆看法的另一个弱点(我个人的意见觉得这个弱点造成它最终的无效)是,它没有能欣赏这个意涵,即把安息日作为创世律例(创2:2-3;出20:11)。既然欧陆立场没有把安息日解释为创世的律例,而是作为礼仪律法的一部分,安息日严格来说,在新约中已经被废止了。
Another weakness of the Continental view - in my opinion, this weakness constitutes its ultimate invalidation - is that it fails to appreciate the implications of the Sabbath as a creation ordinance (Gen. 2:2-3; Exod. 20:11). Since the Continental position interprets the Sabbath not as a creation ordinance but as part of the ceremonial law, the Sabbath strictly speaking has been abrogated in the new covenant.

其含意是,主日作为基督徒敬拜的日子只属于教会的权柄。教会大可以选择另外一天,或甚至不同的每周的循环。最终,教会把基督徒的礼拜天设立为敬拜的日子,主要是受这两件事的引导:1) 教会需要有一天来敬拜,以及 2) 需要有一天进行福音与基督教教义的宣导(以“尽我在福音上和学校里的职责”)。
The implication is that the Lord's Day as the day of Christian worship is of ecclesiastical authority only. The church could have chosen another day, or even a different weekly cycle. Ultimately, the church's establishment of the Christian Sunday as a day of worship is guided primarily by the church's need for a day of worship and for the propagation of the gospel and Christian doctrine ("that the ministry of the gospel and Christian education be maintained").

对比之下,我相信因为它是根源于创造的末世指标,在新约中(七日的第一日)守安息日就是圣约的要求。在最早的圣约中所提供的安息日的安息,已经由新约中的第二个亚当,透过祂的复活/升天为我们完成了。教会不只可以,也必须要在一周的第一天把它分别出来敬拜神,进到天上神治的基督的安息(heavenly theocratic Sabbath of Christ),这是圣约所要求的,客旅教会的末世目标之每周的记号。
By contrast, I believe that, because it is an eschatological pointer grounded in creation, observance of the Sabbath in the new covenant (on the first day of the week) is covenantally demanded. The Sabbath rest offered in the primeval covenant has been achieved by the Second Adam in the new covenant via his resurrection/ascension. The church not only may but must set aside the first day of the week for worship in order to enter into the heavenly theocratic Sabbath of Christ, as a covenantally demanded weekly sign of the pilgrim church's eschatological goal.

基督的复活,以及我们与祂一同复活,是永恒中最后安息之确立的形式(inaugurated form)。清教徒的教义,相对于欧陆的看法,正确地指出释经的证据,即摩西之约的安息日追溯到创世的律例,因此正确地显明第四诫不只是仪式性的。欧陆的看法,相对于清教徒的看法,正确地指向释经的证据,即基督徒的安息日主要是在基督里属灵的安息,因此正确地显明主日不只是把摩西之约的安息日调换到一周中另一处。
The resurrection of Christ, and our co-resurrection with him, is the inaugurated form of the final Sabbath in eternity. The Puritan doctrine, as over against the Continental, rightly points to the exegetical evidence that the Mosaic Sabbath reaches back to the creation ordinance, thus correctly demonstrating that the fourth commandment is not merely ceremonial. The Continental view, as over against the Puritan, rightly points to the exegetical evidence that the Christian Sabbath is a primarily spiritual rest in Christ, thus correctly demonstrating that the Lord's Day is not merely the Mosaic Sabbath moved to a different position in the week.

清教徒的看法没有看出安息日的末世意义,因此无视于当末世到达其在基督里最后的应验时,必然会发生的巨大变化。欧陆看法正确地觉察到安息日在末世时的意义,但是由于它没有把末世和创世的工作之约联系起来,信徒在基督里的安息日的安息是纯粹的“已经到来”,而未受寄居者对“尚未完全”之盼望的考验。
The Puritan view fails to recognize the eschatological significance of the Sabbath, and thus is blind to the dramatic changes that of necessity occur when that eschatology reaches its definitive fulfillment in Christ. The Continental view rightly senses the eschatological significance of the Sabbath, but due to its failure to link that eschatology to the creational covenant of works, the believer's Sabbath rest in Christ is pure "already," untempered by the pilgrim's longing for the "not-yet."

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