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基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学

 
 
 

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神学问答48:什么是加尔文主义?  

2011-08-13 22:29:00|  分类: 改革宗神学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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48. 什么是加尔文主义?


What is Calvinism?
诚之获授权翻译。
原文载于:http://www.monergism.com/thethreshold/articles/onsite/qna/whatcalvinism.html

严格来说,“加尔文主义”是指16世纪伟大的日内瓦宗教改革家,约翰?加尔文的神学教导。他的巨作,《基督教要义》,可以说是过去500年来最重要的著作中。在这部作品中,他把基督教信仰的原则作了非常详尽的概括。他的作品最突出的强调是要说明并论证神绝对的主权,以及神事先决定将要会发生在地球上所有的事,特别是与人的救恩有关的;这也是当人论及“加尔文主义”或“加尔文神学”时所主要强调的。
Strictly speaking, “Calvinism” refers to the theological teachings of the great sixteenth-century Geneva reformer, John Calvin. In his magnum opus, The Institutes of the Christian Religion, which is one of the most important works produced in the past five hundred years, he outlines the principles of the Christian faith in great detail. One of the outstanding emphases of this work is his concern to demonstrate and argue for the absolute sovereignty of God, and his predetermination of all that takes place on the earth, particularly as it relates to the salvation of man; and this emphasis is usually what is primarily intended when one speaks of “Calvinism,” or “Calvinistic theology”.

不过,“加尔文主义”的流行用法,通常是不是指加尔文整体的教导,而是特别指“多特信条”的教导,那是在1618-1619年所举行的一次会议所产生的文件。在那次会议中,加尔文在救恩论上的教导,被用来对抗雅各?亚米念(Jacobus Arminius)(的学生)所领导的抗议者(the Remonstrance)(抗议加尔文的救恩论)。这个历史性的会议提出了一些要点,来回应由抗议者提出的五要点,结果就产生了所谓的加尔文主义五要点,可以简单用英文的“郁金香”(TULIP)来缩写。这五要点是:“Total Depravity”(全然败坏)。“ Unconditional Election”(无条件的拣选)。“ Limited Atonement”(限定的救赎),“ Irresistible Grace”(不可抗拒的恩典),以及“ Perseverance of the Saints”(圣徒的坚忍)。多特信条在今天是非常有影响力的文件,因为它是“三项联合信条”(Three Forms of Unity)之一,即当代许多欧陆改革宗教会和宗派的主要信仰告白标准。加尔文五要点有时也特别被称为为“恩典的教义”(the Doctrines of Grace)。我们会在以下的问题中详细讨论。
However, when the term “Calvinism” is popularly used, it often refers, not to Calvin's teaching in general, but specifically to the Canons of Dort, which was a document produced in a synod held in 1618-1619, which upheld Calvin's teaching on soteriology against the opposition of the Remonstrance, led by Jacobus Arminius. This historic council responded to the five points of the Remonstrance with what have come to be called the five points of Calvinism, and which are commonly remembered by the acrostic “TULIP”. The points are as follows: Total Depravity, Unconditional Election, Limited Atonement, Irresistible Grace, and Perseverance of the Saints. The Canons of Dort is a very influential document today, as it is one of the “Three Forms of Unity,” which are the primary confessional standards of many modern Reformed churches and denominations. The five points of Calvinism are sometimes called “the Doctrines of Grace”. They will be discussed in more detail in the questions below.
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