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基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学

 
 
 

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圣战:耶稣的样式  

2011-08-14 05:03:00|  分类: 圣经神学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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圣战:耶稣的样式
Holy War: Jesus Style


作者: Nicholas Batzig 诚之/译
原文载于:http://www.ligonier.org/learn/articles/holy-war-jesus-style/

乍看之下,也许並不明显,但是以色列在旧约所参与的圣战(出34:11-16)和基督徒在新约中所参与的圣战(弗6:10-19)都直接和基督的工作有关。土地和圣殿的圣经神学,让我们洞见上帝在十字架上以基督为代价的圣战,从而能使我们理解旧约和新约的圣战。这让我们不至于把圣经分割成两本不相干的书。十字架是上帝在新旧约圣经中启示的中心。旧约的影子和预表(shadows and types)在耶稣的位格和工作这完全的亮光中得到实现。为了明白新约对圣战的教导,我们首先必须认识旧约圣战的本质,以及上帝如何在加略山宣告对基督的圣战。
While it may not appear evident at first glance, both the Holy War in which Israel was engaged in the Old Covenant (Ex. 34:11–16) and the Holy War in which Christians are engaged in the New Covenant (Eph. 6:10–19) are directly related to the saving work of Christ. A biblical theology of the Land and temple enables us to make sense of holy war in the Old and New Testaments by giving insights into the holy war that God waged on Christ at the cross. This keeps us from dissecting the Bible into two unrelated books. The cross is the epicenter of God’s revelation in both testaments. The shadows and types of the Old Testament are realized in the full light of the person and work of Jesus. In order to understand the New Testament’s teaching on holy war, we must first understand the nature of old covenant holy war and how God declared holy war on Christ at Calvary.

在上帝吩咐以色列消灭迦南地的列国的命令中,洁净是最突出的。上帝应许要与祂的百姓同住。以色列地是恢复伊甸园的踏脚石。上帝的计划是以有公义在那里居住的“新天新地”(彼后3:13)来恢复失去的乐园。以色列地是这个过程中一个暂时的步骤。上帝把这块土地分别为圣,只有圣洁的人才能居住。为了让圣洁的神居住在这块土地上,这块土地必须是圣洁的。住在迦南地上的人和他们的风俗代表一切与上帝的圣洁敌对的。正如克莱恩(Meredith Kline)所说的,“以色列人征服并驱逐迦南人,是为了要应验他们作为祭司国度的地位……耶和华称这地是圣洁的,祂给了他们洁净这地的使命。”
Purification stands at the forefront of God’s command for Israel to destroy the nations in the land of Canaan. God promised to dwell with His people. The land of Israel was a stepping-stone toward the restoration of Eden. God’s purpose was to restore paradise lost with “new heavens and a new Earth in which righteousness dwells” (2 Peter 3:13). The land of Israel was a temporary step in this process. The land was set apart by God for a holy dwelling. In order for the Holy God to dwell in the land, the land had to be holy. The Canaanite inhabitants and their practices represented everything opposed to the holiness of God. As Meredith Kline noted, “Israel’s conquest and dispossession of the Canaanites was carried out in fulfillment of their status as a nation of priests … commissioned to cleanse the land claimed by Yahweh as holy to him.”

在救赎历史中,圣殿成为在应许之地里上帝的居所。圣殿因着罪必须要被洁净。旧约中洁净圣殿的举动,指回迦南地的征服,并指向基督的工作(代下29:3-19;尼13:4-31)。在祂的时代,耶稣洁净了圣殿。这些洁净圣殿的行动说明敬拜者需要最后属灵的洁净。征服迦南地和洁净圣殿都是要教导以色列人,他们需要属灵的洁净。
In redemptive history, the temple became God’s dwelling place in the land. The temple needed to be cleansed because of sin. The several acts of temple cleansing in the Old Testament pointed back to the conquest of Canaan and forward to the work of Christ (2 Chron. 29:3–19; Neh. 13:4–31). In His day, Jesus cleansed the temple. These temple cleansings showed the need for a final spiritual cleansing of the worshipers. Both the conquest of the land and the cleansing of the temple were to teach the Israelites their need for spiritual cleansing.

在祂传道事工的开始,我们的主说:「你们拆毁这殿,我三日内要再建立起来。」(约2:19)祂是以祂的身体为殿(2:21)。耶稣就是圣殿,“因為父喜欢叫一切的丰盛在祂里面居住。”(西1:19) 当基督被钉十字架,圣殿在最伟大的审判行动中得到了洁净。祂的身体遭到毁损,而祂百姓的罪则得到洁净(林后5:21)。当父神向祂的儿子宣战时,实际上是在向祂的百姓和他们的罪宣战。在耶稣的死亡中,神的百姓也为他们的罪受了审判。当耶稣被钉十字架,我们也和祂一同被钉十字架(加2:20)。罪的权势被摧毁(5:24)。当祂复活时,我们也与祂一同复活,得到新的生命(罗6:5-10;西3:3)。
At the beginning of His ministry, our Lord said, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up” (John 2:19). He was “speaking about the temple of his body” (2:21). Jesus is the temple because in Him “the fullness of God was pleased to dwell” (Col. 1:19). When Christ was crucified, the temple was cleansed in the greatest act of judgment . In the destruction of His flesh, the sin of His people was cleansed (2 Cor. 5:21). The Father declared holy war on His people and their sin when He declared it on His Son. In the death of Jesus, the people of God were judged for their sins. When Jesus was crucified, we were crucified with Him (Gal. 2:20). The power of sin was destroyed (5:24). When He rose, we rose with Him to new life (Rom. 6:5–10; Col. 3:3).

在新约中,所有藉著信心与基督联合的人,构成了上帝的殿(林前3:16-17)。神的灵不再居住在耶路撒冷,而是住在信徒的心中。耶稣的宝血洁净了祂百姓的心。我们的成圣仍然继续受到祂的死的影响。基督的灵住在信徒里面,要清除他们心中残余的败坏。
In the new covenant, all who are united to Christ by faith form the temple of God (1 Cor. 3:16–17). The Spirit of God no longer dwells in a building in Jerusalem; He dwells in the hearts of believers. The blood of Jesus cleanses the hearts of His people. Our sanctification is continually affected by His death. The Spirit of Christ resides in believers and is committed to cleansing their hearts of remaining corruption.

今天,教会也参与在圣战当中。这场战争要对抗的,是在世界的国度背后的属灵敌人(弗6:10-11)。在这场圣战中,神不是呼召我们去征服迦南地;而是要“使万民作我的门徒”(太28:19)。我们不是用实质的武器来打这场战争;而是靠宣讲福音,靠圣灵治死罪来打这场仗。在十字架上,耶稣已经胜过了(空中)一切执政掌权的(西2:15)。在祂的升天当中,祂掳掠了仇敌(弗4:8),拯救祂的百姓脱离罪和魔鬼的权势。我们藉著参与教会的使命,也参与在祂的胜利当中。当罪人得到归正,他们就经历了属灵的死亡与复活。他们的心藉著信靠被钉十字架的救主而得到洁净。无论哪里,只要有十字架的宣讲;无论何时,只要信徒参与到与他们的罪的战斗,就是在打一场圣战。
Today, the church is engaged in holy war. It is a war against the spiritual enemies who lie behind the kingdoms of this world (Eph. 6:10–11). In this holy war, we are not called to conquer the land of Israel; rather, we are to “make disciples of all nations” (Matt. 28:19). We do not fight this war with physical weapons; we do so by proclaiming the gospel and putting sin to death by the Spirit. At the cross, Jesus disarmed principalities and powers (Col. 2:13). In His ascension, He plundered the enemy (Eph. 4:8), freeing His people from the power of sin and the Devil. We participate in His victory by participating in the church’s mission. When sinners are converted, they undergo a spiritual death and resurrection. Their hearts are cleansed through faith in the crucified Savior. Wherever the message of the cross is proclaimed — and whenever believers engage in hand to- hand combat with their sin — holy war is being fought.

无论在什么处境下,我们不可忘记这场战争是主的战争——祂决定了结果。这场战争已经打完了,而且赢得了胜利。胜利在加略山得到了保证。上帝在十字架上向祂的儿子宣战。如此,祂就战胜了世界,战胜了肉体,也战胜了魔鬼。
Whatever the circumstance, we must never forget that the battle is the Lord’s — He has determined its outcome. The war has been fought and won. Victory has been secured at Calvary. God declared holy war on His Son at the cross. In doing so, He conquered the world, the flesh, and the Devil.


参考经文:
Eph 6:10-11 我还有末了的话:你们要靠著主,倚赖他的大能大力作刚强的人。 11 要穿戴神所赐的全副军装,就能抵挡魔鬼的诡计。
2Pe 3:13 但我们照他的应许,盼望新天新地,有义居在其中。
Joh 2:19 耶稣回答说:「你们拆毁这殿,我三日内要再建立起来。」
Joh 2:21 但耶稣这话是以他的身体为殿。
Col 1:19 因为父喜欢叫一切的丰盛在他里面居住。
2Co 5:21 神使那无罪(无罪:原文作不知罪)的,替我们成为罪,好叫我们在他里面成为神的义。
Gal 2:20 我已经与基督同钉十字架,现在活著的不再是我,乃是基督在我里面活著;并且我如今在肉身活著,是因信神的儿子而活;他是爱我,为我舍己。
Gal 5:24 凡属基督耶稣的人,是已经把肉体连肉体的邪情私欲同钉在十字架上了。
Rom 6:5-10 我们若在他死的形状上与他联合,也要在他复活的形状上与他联合; 6 因为知道我们的旧人和他同钉十字架,使罪身灭绝,叫我们不再作罪的奴仆; 7 因为已死的人是脱离了罪。 8 我们若是与基督同死,就信必与他同活。 9 因为知道基督既从死里复活,就不再死,死也不再作他的主了。 10 他死是向罪死了,只有一次;他活是向神活著。
Col 3:3 因为你们已经死了,你们的生命与基督一同藏在神里面。
Col 2:15 既将一切执政的、掌权的掳来,明显给众人看,就仗著十字架夸胜。
Eph 4:8 所以经上说:他升上高天的时候,掳掠了仇敌,将各样的恩赐赏给人。
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