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基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学

 
 
 

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神学问答49:伯拉纠主义,半伯拉纠主义,阿民念主义  

2011-08-14 21:55:00|  分类: 改革宗神学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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49. “伯拉纠主义”,“半伯拉纠主义”和“阿民念主义”是什么意思?它们彼此的关系如何?


What do the terms “Pelagianism,” “Semi-Pelagianism,” and “Arminianism” mean, and how do they relate to each other?
诚之获授权翻译。
原文载于:http://www.monergism.com/thethreshold/articles/onsite/qna/whatpelagian.html

“伯拉纠主义”,“半伯拉纠主义”和“阿民念主义”这些词的共同点是它们所呈现的是一种“神人合作”(synergistic)的神学形式;也就是说,人救恩的起点,即“重生”时,不是神单独、单方面的行动,而是由神和人“合作”(working together)的产物,在某种程度上。所有这些神人合作的系统,都与“加尔文主义”或“奥古斯丁主义”抵触;“加尔文主义”或“奥古斯丁主义”都教导:神主权地把一个新的、活的心赐给选民,使他们能信靠基督,因此被称义而永恒地得救。
The terms “Pelagianism,” “Semi-Pelagianism,” and “Arminianism” have in common that they all present a form of synergistic theology; that is, the beginning of man's salvation, in regeneration, is not accomplished by the sole and unilateral act of God, but is produced by God and man “working together,” in some sense. Each of these synergistic systems is in opposition to “Calvinism” or “Augustinianism,” which teaches that God sovereignly gives to each of his elect a new, living heart which cannot do otherwise than believe in Christ, and so be justified and eternally saved.

伯拉纠主义是最早、也是最极端的神人合作的神学,它是由第四世纪一位英国的僧侣,名叫“伯拉纠”(Pelagius)所阐述的。伯拉纠教导说,人的本性没有受到亚当堕落的影响,所有的人都还是自由的,可以选择善或选择恶,选择顺服神或不顺服神。人生来并不是有罪的(guilty),只有当他们行邪恶之事后,才成为有罪;而亚当的失败并没有败坏他的子孙,只是给他们一个坏榜样,他们可以自己选择是否要效法他。希坡的主教奥古斯丁极力反对伯拉纠,他根据圣经教导说,人生来受到罪的捆绑,而神的命令的涵义不包括人有顺服神的道德能力。伯拉纠在主后413年的以弗所大公会议(Council of Ephesus)被定为异端。
Pelagianism, the first and most radical of these synergistic theologies, was expounded by a fourth-century British monk named Pelagius. Pelagius taught that man's nature was not affected by Adam's fall, but that all men are still free to choose good or evil, to obey God or disobey him. Men are not guilty by nature, but only become guilty when they choose to do that which is evil; and Adam's failure did not corrupt his offspring, it just gave them a bad example, which they could choose to follow or not to follow. Augustine, the Bishop of Hippo, was Pelagius' great adversary, and he taught that man is bound in sin according to the scriptures, and that God's commands do not imply man's moral ability to obey them. Pelagianism was officially condemned by the Church in AD 431, at the Council of Ephesus.

“半伯拉纠主义”是宗教改革时期的用词,是指一种出现在在第六世纪,以弗所会议之后的、比较软性的伯拉纠主义。根据半伯拉纠主义的看法,人没有自由选择善或恶,但是他至少有自由,可以靠信心做出归向神的第一个行动,因此,靠着神的恩典,神就赐给他选择善的能力(译按:神的恩典是必要的,但是人必须和神合作)。人在堕落的本性中,无法行善,但是他至少能以他自己天然的能力相信并归向上帝。这种比较软性的伯拉纠主义,在主后529年,被奥兰治会议(Council of Orange)定为异端(诚之按:奥兰治会议拒绝了半伯拉纠主义,但是也否定了奥古斯丁的“遗弃reprobation”说)。不过,改教家们正确地认识到,16世纪的罗马教会已经再度彻底地变成了半伯拉纠主义。
“Semi-Pelagianism” is a Reformation-era term that came to designate a softer sort of Pelagianism that arose after the Council of Ephesus, in the sixth century. According to Semi-Pelagianism, man is not free to choose good or evil, but he is at least free to make the first move to God, to turn to him in faith, and so be given the power to choose good by God's grace. Man is not free to do good in his fallen nature, but he is at least able to believe and come to God in his own native strength. This softer variety of Pelagianism was officially condemned by the Church in 529, at the Council of Orange; however, the Reformers rightly recognized that the Roman church of the sixteenth century had become thoroughly Semi-Pelagian again.

“阿民念主义”是指雅各布?阿民念(Jacobus Arminius)的教导,或以他为首的“抗议者”(the Remonstrance)的五要点。根据亚米念(及跟随他的人)的教导,人没有堕落到一个地步,使他无法自然地寻求上帝;神拣选人是根据祂预先看见人的信心,人会在一定的时间归向祂;基督的救赎是要给世上所有的人的,但是是否会被分配到具体的个人身上,就取决于人自由的决定,是信还是不信;神的恩典是足够的,如果人这样选择,就可以使人有能力相信,但是神的恩典并不会迫使人相信(necessitate faith);而当人真正在基督里得到真实的得救的信心,他仍然可以自由地离开,从恩典中坠落,而永远地失落。主后1618-1619的多特会议,正式地定阿民念主义有罪,并坚持所谓的“加尔文五要点”;不过,今天有许多更正教教会和宗派仍然持守阿民念神学。阿民念主义和半伯拉纠主义的不同之处在于前者教导“在先的恩典”。这是为了反对半伯拉纠主义。阿民念主义通常教导人没有天然的能力相信;然而,神把先在的恩典毫无例外地给了所有的人,给予他们所需要的道德能力选择信或不信。人是否得救,完全取决于这个人是否选择运用这个先在的恩典,并相信神。
“Arminianism” refers to the teachings of Jacobus Arminius, and the five points of the Remonstrance which he headed. According to Arminius, man is not so depraved that he cannot naturally seek God; God's election of men is based on his foreseeing the faith they would come to in time; the atonement of Christ was intended for every person on earth, but whether it will actually be applied to anyone in particular rests upon his free decision to believe or not to believe; God's grace is sufficient to enable men to believe if they so choose, but does not necessitate faith; and after a man has come to a genuine saving faith in Christ, he is still free to turn aside and fall away from grace, and so be eternally lost. The Synod of Dort, in 1618-1619, officially condemned Arminianism, and upheld the so-called five points of Calvinism; however, there are many Protestant churches and denominations today that hold to an Arminian theology. Arminianism differs from Semi-Pelagianism in the former's teaching on prevenient grace: against Semi-Pelagianism, Arminianism usually teaches that man does not have the natural ability to believe; however, God extends his prevenient grace to all men without exception, giving them all the moral ability to choose to believe or not to believe. Whether or not any man is actually saved depends entirely on whether a person chooses to improve upon this prevenient grace, and believe in God.

Further Reading
Arminainism, Semi-Pelagianism on Monergism.com

附录:半伯拉纠主义
转载自:http://carm.org/languages/chinese/%E5%8D%8A%E4%BC%AF%E6%8B%89%E7%BA%A0%E4%B8%BB%E4%B9%89

半伯拉纠主义(Semi-Pelagianism)是伯拉纠异端一种较中立的形式,伯拉纠异端由公元五世纪罗马的一个教师伯拉纠(Pelagius)提出。半伯拉纠主义則由五世纪马赛港(Marseilles)的卡西安[Cassian]提出)他并没有否认原罪以及其对人的灵魂和意志的影响。但是它教导神与人的合作才实现对人的救赎。这种合作並非人的努力守律法的意思,而是人根据自己意志做出自由选择的能力。半伯拉纠主义教导,人能通过其自由的意志寻求迈向被上帝救赎第一步,然后依靠神的恩赐与神合作,之后通过自己的努力来保持信仰。这就意味着,人能否被救赎依靠的是上帝的恩赐,而上帝的恩赐对于维持信仰却不是必须的。

该异端的错误在于,它所指的恩赐已不再是恩赐。恩赐是上帝对罪人完全并且自由给予的。但是,如果是由人首先去寻求上帝,上帝才因为他的努力而给予恩赐。这意味着,上帝的得救恩典仅仅是决定了人是主动尋求。这不再是恩赐,是人去选择相信上帝,而不是上帝主动对人的恩赐。

半伯拉纠主义教导,罪恶中的人有能力去选择信仰上帝。
半伯拉纠主义教导,上帝的恩赐救赎,是人最初努力的结果。
半伯拉纠主义否认基督教的预定论(predestination)。
半伯拉纠主义在主后529年召开的奥朗日会议(The Council of Orange)上被谴责为异端.
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