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基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学

 
 
 

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神学问答50:“在先的恩典”是什么意思?  

2011-08-16 08:07:00|  分类: 改革宗神学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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50. “在先的恩典”是什么意思?它合乎圣经吗?


What does the term “prevenient grace” mean, and is it biblical?
诚之获授权翻译。
原文载于:http://www.monergism.com/thethreshold/articles/onsite/qna/prevenient.html

“在先的恩典”(Prevenient Grace)是抗辩文(the Remonstrance)所用的词。这是一份17世纪由雅各布·亚民念和追随他的人,为了抗议改教家所教导的加尔文主义的救恩论所构思的一份文件。“在先的恩典”本身的意思正如字面,是指“在之前就存在的恩典”;但是抗议文用它来指神毫无例外地给所有的人的恩典,这恩典使得所有的人有能力回应神的邀请,相信福音。落实到具体的人是否会相信福音,则取决与他是否选择使用这个神毫无分别给了所有的人的恩典(improve upon the grace)。因此,这个“在先的恩典”对选民来说就不是不可抗拒的;它只是劝说人,给人能力,但是人可以自由的接受或拒绝,完全取决于这个人的选择。在基督教界,许多阿民念/卫斯理派的神学家和宗派都持守这个“可拒绝的,毫无区别地给所有的人的在先恩典”的教义。
“Prevenient Grace” is a term that was used in the Remonstrance, a seventeenth-century document formulated by Jacobus Arminius and others, to protest the Calvinistic soteriology of the Reformers. The term itself simply means “grace that comes before”; but the Remonstrance cast it in terms of the grace of God given to all mankind without exception, which enables all men to respond to God's invitation and believe in the gospel. Whether or not anyone in particular does believe in the gospel, then, is conditioned upon whether he chooses to improve upon the grace which has been given indiscriminately to all. Prevenient grace, therefore, is not irresistible for the elect; it is merely persuasive and enabling, but may freely be accepted or rejected by the arbitrary choice of its subjects. This doctrine of resistible, indiscriminate prevenient grace for all men is held today in many Arminian/Wesleyan theologies and denominations throughout Christianity.

然而,阿民念神学所解释的“在先的恩典”的教义,却没有圣经的支持。当然,神重生的恩典必定出现在信心之前,所以,从这个意义上说,恩典必然是“先在”的;然而,圣经的“先在恩典”,远远超过阿民念神学的观念。当神把这个使人复活的恩典赐给不信的人的时候,它不只是给他们活着的选择,而是真的使这个人活过来(弗1:1-5;结37:3-6,11-14;约1:11-13;3:3-8;5:21;雅1:18;彼前1:3;约壹5:1);它不只是给人归向基督的能力,而是无可抗拒地、毫无例外地吸引他们(约6:37-40,45;诗65:4;罗9:15);它不只是使他们能够选择善——如果他善用这个恩典(improve upon it),而是使他们遵行神的律例(申30:6;结11:19-20;36:26-27;耶31:33;32:40)。圣经反对阿民念“在先的恩典”的教义,而是教导只有两类人:父神所拣选,赐给圣子的人,他们毫无例外地都会归向祂(约6:37-40,45);而那些父神没有赐给圣子的,就不是祂的羊,因此也不会信(约6:65;10:26;12:37-41)。没有第三类人的空间,即神吸引他们,但却不会善用这个恩典。此外,“先在的恩典”这个教义与使徒在林前4:7所说的特别是相反对的,在那里,保罗用夸张的口气问到,“使你与人不同的是谁呢?”先在的恩典说,因为我们选择善用神毫无例外赐给所有人的恩典,我们就和那些没有得救的邻居有所不同;如此,就与这节经文有明显的抵触。
However, the doctrine of prevenient grace, as it is explained in Arminian theology, finds no support from scripture. It is true, of course, that the regenerating grace of God must come before faith, and so in that sense it is prevenient; however, this biblical prevenient grace goes far beyond the Arminian conception; when God grants his quickening grace to unbelievers, it does not merely give them the option to be alive – it makes them alive (Eph. 2:1-5; Ezek. 37:3-6, 11-14; John 1:11-13, 3:3-8; 5:21; Jam. 1:18; 1 Pet, 1:3; 1 John 5:1); it does not merely grant them the ability to come – it irresistibly draws them all without exception (John 6:37-40, 45; Psalm 65:4 Rom. 9:15); it does not merely make them able to choose good if they improve upon it – it causes them to walk in God's statues (Deut. 30:6; Ezek. 11:19-20; 36:26-27; Jer. 31:33; 32:40). Against the Arminian doctrine of prevenient grace, the bible teaches that there are only two classes of people: those whom the Father has chosen and given to the Son, all of whom without exception will come to him (John 6:37-40, 45); and those whom the Father has not given to the Son, who are not of his sheep, and who therefore cannot believe (John 6:65; 10:26; 12:37-41). There is no room for a third class of people who have been given God's drawing grace but who do not improve upon it. Furthermore, the doctrine of prevenient grace is specifically argued against by the apostle in 1 Cor. 4:7, which asks rhetorically, “Who made you to differ?”. Prevenient grace says that we make ourselves to differ from our unsaved neighbors, by choosing to improve upon the grace that God gave to us all without exception; hence, it is in manifest contradiction to this passage.

參考文章:
圣经教导“在先的恩典”吗?

Further Studies:
A Short Response to the Arminian Doctrine of Prevenient Grace by John Hendryx
Does Scripture Teach Prevenient Grace in the Wesleyan Sense? by Thomas R. Schreiner
Arminians and Prevenient Grace by Sam Storms
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