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基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学

 
 
 

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神学问答1:什么是神学?  

2011-08-03 23:06:00|  分类: 改革宗神学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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1. 什么是神学?


What is theology?
诚之获授权翻译。
原文载于:http://www.monergism.com/thethreshold/articles/onsite/qna/whatistheology.html

神学(theology)这个词来自希腊文的“神”(theos)和“道”(word)或“知识的主体”(body of knowledge,logos);因此,其字面的意义就是:“关于神的知识”(the body of knowledge about God),或者更简单地说,是“对神的研究”。因此,就其严格的意义来说,神学只和「神的本质的知识」有关,与圣经中其他的教义无关。不过,许多世纪以来,“神学”这个词已经有了更广大的涵义,通常被用来指与基督徒世界观有关的整个知识体系,包括圣经中的各样真理,以及教会在其历史过程中,从研读圣经所得出的所有基督徒教义。
The term “theology” comes from the Greek words for “God” (theos) and “word,” or “body of knowledge” (logos); hence, it means, literally, “the body of knowledge about God,” or, more simply, “the study of God”. Therefore, in its strict sense, theology has to do only with the knowledge of the Godhead, and not with the other doctrines found in the bible. However, for many centuries, the term “theology” has had a broader connotation, and is often used to refer to the entire body of knowledge related to the Christian worldview, including all the various truths that are found in the scriptures, and the Christian doctrines which the Church has derived from the study of the scriptures over the course of her history.

因为“神学”这个词有更广的涵义,它习惯上被用来特指神的教义,或只是三一真神的第一位格(也就是父神)的教义,即“神学本体”(theology proper)。因此,“神学本体”(意思是对神的研究),就是“神学”(意思是对所有基督教教义的研究)的一部分。所以,“神学”就包括了“基督论christology”(对基督的研究);“圣灵学pneumatology”(对圣灵的研究);“圣经论bibliology”(对圣经的研究);”“人论anthropology”(对人的研究);“天使论angelology”(对天使的研究);“罪论hamartiology”(对罪的研究);“救恩论soteriology”(对救恩的研究);“教会论ecclesiology”(对教会的研究);以及“末世论eschatology”(对末后的事的研究)。
Because the term “theology” has such a broad connotation, it has been customary to refer to the doctrine of God specifically, or sometimes just the doctrine of the first person of the trinity, that is, of God the Father, as “theology proper”. Thus, “theology proper,” meaning the study of God, is a subset of “theology,” meaning the study of all the doctrines of Christianity, including “christology” (the study of Christ); “pneumatology” (the study of the Holy Spirit); “bibliology” (the study of the bible); “anthropology” (the study of man); “angelology” (the study of angels); “hamartiology” (the study of sin); “soteriology” (the study of salvation); “ecclesiology” (the study of the Church); and “eschatology” (the study of last things).

以上的分类构成了“系统神学”,这是把神学中所碰到的教义加以组织的一种方式。但是神学教义也可以用其他方式来安排,包括“圣经神学biblical theology”,研究神学如何在救赎历史里逐渐启示出来;“历史神学historical theology”,研究教会历史中不同时期的神学发展;“教义神学dogmatic theology”,研究不同宗派和运动的神学教导,以及“当代神学contemporary theology”,研究目前正被广泛讨论和争论的神学议题。
The categories listed above all pertain to “systematic theology,” which is one method of organizing the doctrines encountered in theology. But theological doctrines may be arranged in other fashions as well, including “biblical theology,” the study of theology as it is progressively revealed in redemptive history; “historical theology,” the study of the development of theology in different periods of church history; “dogmatic theology,” the study of the theological teachings of different denominations and movements; and “contemporary theology,” the study of the theological issues currently being discussed and debated on a wide scale.

Related Reading for Further Study
Theology by Francis Turretin (推荐:Dr. JJeff Jue on Francis Turretin 神学不只是知识,是我们的智慧;神学必须应用在我们的生活中,影响我们的生命)
The Justification of Theology as an Intellectual Discipline by Robert L. Reymond
Theses Theologicae Theological Propositions by R. Scott Clark (神学论纲

[推荐]:
第三千禧年事工 建立你的神学

[摘录一些神学家对神学的定义]:
1. 中世纪天主教神学家阿奎拿(A.D.1225-1274)
“神学是总体的科学,这科学把一切事情都放在上帝的观点之下去看,这些事情要么因为论及上帝本身,要么因为涉及到上帝。”
2. 19世纪更正教神学家查尔斯?贺智(Charles Hodge):
神学是:“神的启示,是有关神的本质和我们与祂之间的关系的科学事实。”
以上两个定义偏向“学术取向”。

3. 16-17世纪的清教徒神学家威廉姆?阿穆斯(William Ames)
神学是:“为神而活的教义或教导”。
4. 约翰.傅瑞姆(John Frame)
神学是:“人将神的话语应用在人生的每一个层面中。”
这两个定义偏向“人生取向”。

5. 流传很广的话(据说是阿奎拿说的)
神学是神的教导,教导关于神的事,领我们认识神(西一28)。
Theology is taught by God, teaches of God and leads to God. ─Aquinas, Thomas

6. 神学是永远过蒙福生活的学问。
Theology is The Science of Living Blessedly Forever. --William Perkins (1558-1602)
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