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基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学

 
 
 

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圣约神学纲要  

2011-08-07 19:57:00|  分类: 圣经神学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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#isubb#[size=4][b]圣约神学纲要[/b][/size] THESES ON COVENANT THEOLOGY By Dr. R. Scott Clark Associate Professor of Historical and Systematic Theology, Westminster Seminary California 唐兴 译/ Theophilus Lim、诚之校 原文登载于:http://clark.wscal.edu/covtheses.php [b]一、前言 Prolegomena[/b] 1. 圣约神学是圣经全部启示的架构。 Covenant theology structures all of Biblical revelation. 2. 圣经中所启示的诸约形式是源自并迁就于古代近东历史;我们必须在那个文化背景中来了解圣约。 The form of the covenants revealed in Scripture was borrowed from and is accommodated to the ancient near eastern world and must be understood in that context. 3. 圣约是对圣经的启示,以及正典的本质与权威,最和谐统一的解释。 Covenant is the most coherent explanation for Biblical revelation and the nature and authority of the canon. [b]二、历史性与神学性的论点 Historical/Theological[/b] 1. 圣约神学并非是从16或17世纪中凭空兴起的;实际上,所有归正圣约神学的各个组成部份,在之前的世代就已经初步形成。 Covenant theology did not arise de novo in the 16th or 17th centuries but virtually all the elements which made up Reformed covenant theology existed inchoately in earlier epochs. 2. 改革宗正统致力于圣约神学,是为了要使他们的释经(圣经)和教义神学,以救赎历史的方式表达出来。 Reformed orthodoxy turned to covenant theology to give redemptive historical expression to their exegetical (biblical) and dogmatic theology. 3. 从改革宗正统的认知与实践来看,圣约神学与“盟约神学”(注1)之间没有意义上的区分。 As understood and practiced by Reformed orthodoxy, there was no meaningful distinction between covenant and federal theology. 4. 正统路德宗似乎弃绝了归正圣约神学,因为他们认为圣约神学混淆了律法和福音。 Orthodox Lutheranism appears to have rejected Reformed covenant theology because they saw in it a confusion of Law and Gospel. 5. 归正神学致力于圣约神学并非要修正或驳回路德的突破,而是为保全更正教的救恩教义,并建立从称义到成圣间的密切关系。 Reformed theology turned to covenant theology however, not to revise or reject Luther's breakthrough, but in order to preserve the Protestant soteriology and relate coherently justification to sanctification. 6. 古典归正神学教导了三大圣约:[b]救赎之约(pactum salutis)[/b]、[b]工作之约(foedus operum[/b])和[b]恩典之约(foedus gratiae)[/b]。 Classical Reformed theology taught three covenants: the covenant of redemption (pactum salutis), the covenant of works (foedus operum) and the covenant of grace (foedus gratiae). [b]三、圣经与解经方面的论点 Biblical/Exegetical[/b] 1. 圣经的上帝以圣约和祂的受造物建立关系:自永恒之始(救赎之约),于创造之时(工作之约),在护理之中(保全之约),和救赎当中(恩典之约)。 The God of the Bible relates to his creatures covenantally from eternity (pactum salutis), in creation (covenant of works), in providence (covenant of preservation) and in redemption (covenant of grace). 2. 何西阿书六7(“如亚当”)证明圣经作者的意识里,的确有堕落前的 “工作之约”。 Hosea 6:7 ("like Adam") confirms the consciousness of the Biblical authors of a prelapsarian covenant of works. 3. 使徒保罗预设了堕落前工作之约的存在(罗二13,四4)。 The Apostle Paul presupposes the existence of a prelapsarian covenant of works in passages such as Romans 2:13 and 4:4). 4. 亚当被逐离开生命树(创三22-24),证实了工作之约考验(probationary)的特质。 The excommunication from the Tree of Life (Genesis 3:22-24) confirms the probationary nature of the covenant of works. 5. 工作之约具有多重的记号(sign)和印记(seal),包括:创造的安息日、分别善恶树、和生命树。 There were multiple signs and seals of the covenant of works including the creational Sabbath, the tree of the knowledge of good and evil and the tree of life. 6. 创世记三15首次的福音应许,就是恩典之约的宣告,即中保对选民的救赎。 The first Gospel promise in Genesis 3:15 announces the covenant of grace, i.e. redemption of the elect by the Mediator. 7. 恩典之约是在救赎历史中,福音施行的历史进展纪录。 The covenant of grace is the progressive historical account of the administration of the Gospel in the history of redemption. 8. 第一个挪亚之约(创六17-19)是特定的,是恩典之约的一种施行。 The first Noahic covenant (Genesis 6:17-19) was particular and an administration of the covenant of grace. 9. 第二个挪亚之约(创九8-17)是一个普世性的非救赎之约,它应许了对审判的克制,直到最后的日子。 The second Noahic covenant (Genesis 9:8-17) was a universal non-soteric covenant promising the restraint of judgment until the last day. 10. 亚伯拉罕之约是神对亚当所颁布的堕落后圣约/应许(创三15-17)的更新。 The Abrahamic covenant is a renewal of the postlapsarian covenant/promise made to Adam (Genesis 3:15; 17). 11. 在救赎历史中,恩典之约是在亚伯拉罕里面被重新颁布的,这样,亚伯拉罕就成为所有信徒之父了(罗四11; 约八56)。 In the history of redemption, the covenant of grace was renewed in Abraham such that he is the father of all who believe (Romans 4:11; John 8:56). 12. 亚伯拉罕之约在逻辑上和历史上是先于摩西之约的。 The Abrahamic covenant is logically as well as historically prior to the Mosaic. 13. 在基督里被重新颁布的是亚伯拉罕之约,而不是摩西之约。 The Mosaic covenant was not renewed under Christ, but the Abrahamic covenant was. 14. 将地赐给亚伯拉罕的应许(创十五18;出六4;士二1)是对最终状况(来十一10)和新约将要临到之祝福的预表(创二4;加三14;来八)。 The land promise made to Abraham (Genesis 15:18; Exodus 6:4; Judges 2:1) was typical of the coming blessings of the New Covenant (Genesis 2:4; Galatians 3:14; Hebrews 8) and the final state (Hebrews 11:10). 15. 所有在摩西之下被称义的人都是唯独靠着恩典、唯独借着信心、和唯独在基督里而被称为义的。All those justified under Moses were justified by grace alone, through faith alone in Christ alone. 16. 就赐地之应许来说,摩西之约是为了教导的缘故(加三23-四7),所作的必要修正;也是对亚当工作之约的重新颁布。 With regard to the land promise, the Mosaic covenant was, mutandis, for pedagogical reasons (Galatians 3:23-4:7), a republication of the Adamic covenant of works. 17. 就称义和救恩来说,摩西之约是恩典之约的一种施行。 With regard to justification and salvation, the Mosaic covenant was an administration of the covenant of grace. 18. 以色列人是借着恩典得到并保有了应许之地(王下十三23),但是他们被逐出的原因是未能遵行那暂时性的、预表性的、教导性的工作之约(创十二7;出六4;申二十九19-29;王下十七6-7;结十七)。 The Israelites were given the land and kept it by grace (2 Kings 13:23) but were expelled for failure to keep a temporary, typical, pedagogical, covenant of works (Genesis 12:7; Exodus 6:4; Deuteronomy 29:19-29; 2 Kings 17:6-7; Ezekiel 17). 19. 恩典之约,于堕落后的历史中被启动,是位于亚当、挪亚、和亚伯拉罕之下的倒数第三顺位,是位于新约实施的倒数第二顺位;并将于最后(末世)的顺位成全。 The covenant of grace, initiated in history after the fall, was in its antepenultimate state under Adam, Noah, and Abraham, its penultimate state under the New Covenant administration and shall reach its ultimate (eschatological) state in the consummation. 20. 圣经用「旧约」这个词,是指摩西时期,而不是指道成肉身之前的所有时期,也不是毫无区分地指所有的希伯来文和亚兰文圣经。 The term "Old Covenant" as used in Scripture refers to the Mosaic epoch not every epoch before the incarnation nor to all of the Hebrew and Aramaic Scriptures indiscriminately. 21. 「新约」的「新」是相较于摩西之约而言,而非亚伯拉罕之约。 The New Covenant is new relative to Moses, not Abraham. 22. 「旧约」对「新约」来说,具备了暂时性和预表性的意义。 The Old Covenant was temporary and typical of the New Covenant. 23. 以救赎历史的意义而言,旧约(摩西之约)偏重于律法(字句)的职事;新约偏重于圣灵的职事(林后三)。 In redemptive historical terms, the Old (Mosaic) Covenant was weighted toward the ministry of the Law ("the letter") whereas the New Covenant is weighted toward the ministry of the Holy Spirit (2 Corinthians 3). 24. 新约是对亚当的应许(创三15)以及对(亚伯拉罕)恩典之约的应验。 The New Covenant is the fulfillment of the promise made to Adam (Genesis 3:15) and the (Abrahamic) covenant of grace. 25. 新约是实体,由道成肉身之前的样式(type)和影儿(shadows)所预表(林后 1:20; 约6:32;来7-9)。 The New Covenant is the reality typified by the pre-incarnational types and shadows (2 Corinthians 1:20; John 6:32; Hebrews 7-9). 26. 律法(工作之约)和福音(恩典之约)的关系可以从(救赎)历史和释经学来区分。 Law (covenant of works) and gospel (covenant of grace) may be distinguished historically and hermeneutically (i.e., the relations) . 27. 就释经学来说,律法(工作之约)和福音(恩典之约)的区别在于:律法(工作之约)是讲到我们个人必须恒久不断地完全遵行律法的要求,才得以称义;福音(恩典之约)是宣告基督已经替我们完全地遵行了律法。 The hermeneutical distinction between law (covenant of works) and gospel (covenant of grace) is the distinction between our personal and perpetual obligation to keep the law perfectly for justification and the announcement that Christ has kept the law perfectly for us. 28. 以(救赎)历史来说,律法和福音的区别可以被看作是工作之约和恩典之约的不同。 The historical distinction between law and gospel may be reckoned as the distinction between the covenant of works and the covenant of grace. 29. 以救赎历史来说,律法和福音的区别也可以被视为摩西与基督的不同。 The historical distinction between law and gospel may also be reckoned as the distinction between Moses and Christ. 30. 当律法和福音的区别被视为摩西与基督的不同时,也可以说福音在律法之中,以及律法在福音之中。然而,当我们从释经学来思考律法和福音的区别的时候,这种说法可能就不恰当了。 When the law/gospel distinction is reckoned as that between Moses and Christ, there may be said to be gospel in the law and law in the gospel. This way of speaking, however, may not be used properly when considering the law/gospel distinction hermeneutically. [b]四、系统神学和教义上的论点Systematic/Dogmatic[/b] 1. 圣约神学是归正神学的本质,改变圣约神学就等于改变了归正神学的实质。 Covenant theology is so of the essence of Reformed theology that to revise its covenant theology is to revise the substance of Reformed theology. 2. 圣约在救赎历史中的布局和在圣经中渐进性的启示不仅仅是一种习俗而已,而是反映出了上帝三位格之间的相互关系。 The covenantal arrangement of the history of redemption and the covenantal progressive revelation of Scripture is not a mere convention, but rather a reflection of the intra-Trinitarian relations. 3. 所有圣经启示的圣约都含有所应许之福分和所警告的危难。 All the covenants revealed in Scripture contain both promised blessing and threatened jeopardy. [b]五、救赎之约The Covenant of Redemption (pactum salutis; consilium pacis)[/b] 1. 时间之前的救赎之约(pactum salutis),乃是工作之约和恩典之约的基础,并命定了救赎的历史。 The pre-temporal covenant of redemption (pactum salutis) stands behind the covenant of works and covenant of grace and orders the history of redemption. 2. 在救赎历史中,救赎之约对圣子而言是讲到祂的工作,对我们而言是讲到赐给我们的救恩。 In the history of redemption, the pactum salutis means works for the Son and grace for us. 3. 救赎之约的圣经基础是:诗一百一十;约五30;六38-40;十七;加三20以及其他经文。 The pactum salutis is biblically grounded in Psalm 110, John 5:30; 6:38-40; 17; Gal 3:20 among other places. 4. 基督作为选民的代表,以祂主动和被动的顺服,完全满足了救赎之约的律法义务与要求。 Christ fulfilled the legal obligations of the pactum salutis in his active and passive obedience as the representative of the elect. 5. 认为救赎之约趋向于三神论似乎是忽视了“工作的三一”与“本体的三一”之间的区别。 The allegation that the pactum salutis tends to tritheism seems to ignore the distinction between the economic and ontological Trinity. 6. 圣灵的工作在救赎之约之中并未总是被讨论到,这是因为其重点在于客观救赎的完成,而非主观救赎的施行。 The work of the Holy Spirit has not always been discussed under the pactum salutis only because it focuses on the accomplishment of redemption rather than the application of redemption. 7. 圣灵的确承诺要将基督(已完成)的(救赎)工作施行于被拣选者的身上(约十五26),因此,没有任何理由说圣灵的工作不能被整合于救赎之约之中。 Since the Spirit certainly consented to apply Christ's work to the elect (John 15:26), there is no reason why the Holy Spirit's work cannot be integrated into the pactum salutis. [b]六、工作之约The Covenant of Works (foedus operum)[/b] 1. 堕落前的圣约,以它的条件来说可以被称为工作之约,以它的目的来说可以被称为生命之约,以它的场景来说可以被称作大自然之约。这三个名称都是在描述同一个约。 The pre-lapsarian covenant may be called a covenant of works in respect to its terms, a covenant of life in respect to its goals and a covenant of nature in respect to its setting. All three names describe the same covenant. 2. 对归正神学而言,工作之约与律法是相同的,意味着:如此行就得永生(Do this and live)。 In Reformed theology, the covenant of works is identical to the Law which says: Do this and live. 3. 耶稣基督代表祂的子民,以祂对上帝的律法之主动和被动的顺服,成全了工作之约。 Jesus Christ fulfilled the covenant works in his active and passive obedience to God's law on behalf of his people. 4. 因亚当的堕落,工作之约作为得永生之道被废除了。 The covenant of works was abrogated as a way to eternal life by the fall. 5. 堕落之后,工作之约的条件仍然继续约束着所有具理性的受造物,这些条件必需经由个人或中保来完全的满足。 Post-lapsum the terms of the covenant of works continue to obligate all rational creatures and must be perfectly fulfilled personally or vicariously. 6. 任何人如果否定堕落前的工作之约,就危害了圣经和更正教称义的教义:惟独靠着恩典、惟独借着信心、惟独在基督里。 Anyone who denies the prelapsarian covenant of works jeopardizes the Biblical and Protestant doctrine of justification by grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ alone. [b]七、恩典之约The Covenant of Grace (foedus gratiae)[/b] 1. 每当我们用到圣约的一些措词时,我们都应该特别说明是哪一个圣约。 When we speak in covenantal terms we should always specify to which covenant we refer. 2. 救赎之约是恩典之约的基础而与之不同。 The pactum salutis is distinct from and the basis of the covenant of grace. 3. 把工作之约与恩典之约相互混淆是可悲的神学误谬。 It is a grievous theological error to confuse the covenant of works with the covenant of grace. 4. “恩典之约”有广义和狭义的用法。广义用法是指因受洗而加入认信基督之圣约团体的每一个人。狭义用法是专指着某些人,他们承受了基督双重的恩惠:称义与成圣。  The term covenant of grace can be used broadly and narrowly. When used broadly, it refers to everyone who is baptized into the Christ confessing covenant community. When used narrowly, it refers to those who have received the double benefit of Christ: justification and sanctification. 5. 广义而言,恩典之约与拣选并非同义词,所有的被拣选者都在恩典之约内,但所有在恩典之约里的人并不都是被拣选者。 Used in the broader sense, the covenant of grace is not synonymous with election so that all the elect are in the covenant of grace, but not all in the covenant of grace are elect. 6. 狭义的说,恩典之约仅指选民而已。 Used in the narrow sense, the covenant of grace refers only to the elect. 7. 对恩典之约的区分是合理和必要的:有一部分的人是处在广义的(外在的)圣约里;有一部分人是同时处在广义的和狭义(内在的)的圣约里。 There is a just and necessary distinction to be made between those who are in the covenant broadly (externally) and those who are in the covenant both broadly and narrowly (internally). 8. 恩典之约的内在与外在的区别,是区分有形教会和无形教会的必然结论。 The internal/external distinction is a corollary of the distinction between the church considered visibly and invisibly. 9. 否认 “内在与外在” 的区别,必定会导致对拣选和谕旨的混淆,或会以为有两种不同的拣选:谕旨的与 “圣约”的(就是一种暂时的、历史的、条件性的拣选)。这种观点在所谓的"Federal Vision"神学中是很明显的。 Denial of the "internal/external" distinction leads necessarily to confusing election and the decree or to positing two types of election, decretal and "covenantal" (i.e., a temporary, historical, conditional election) as is evident in the so-called "Federal Vision" theology. 10. 福音不是对拣选,而是对恩典和主权性的除罪之拯救的应许,这救恩是惟独借着信心才能得到的。 The Gospel is not a promise of election but of a gracious and sovereign salvation from sin which salvation is received through faith alone. 11. 恩典之约有两个恩惠:称义与成圣; 称义在逻辑上是优先的。 There are two chief benefits of the covenant of grace: justification and sanctification of which justification has logical priority. 12. 称义的唯一根基是基督在祂的主动和被动的顺服中,完全满足了工作之约的条件。 The sole ground of justification is the fulfillment of the condition of the covenant of works by Christ in his active and passive obedience. 13. 「称义之信心」的唯一对象是:基督, 为我们成了救赎之约的保证人;替我们完成了工作之约并对我们作了恩典之约的中保。 The sole object of justifying faith is Christ the Surety of the covenant of redemption for us, and the fulfillment of the covenant of works for us, and the Mediator of the covenant of grace to us. 14. 称义的唯一方法和恩典之约唯一条件就是:一种领受的、安息的、和向外看的信心,也就是信靠基督遵行了工作之约。 The sole instrument of justification and condition of the covenant of grace is a receptive, resting, extra-spective, faith which trusts in Christ’s keeping of the covenant of works. 15. 唯有相信者才得着圣约的主要恩惠。 Only believers receive the chief benefits of the covenant. 16. 对归正神学来说,恩典之约就是福音之约,与福音有完全相同的条件和要求。 In Reformed theology the covenant of grace is a Gospel covenant having precisely the same terms and conditions as the Gospel. 17. 称义的信心可以说是恩典之约唯一的条件和方法。 Justifying faith may be said to be the only proper condition or instrument of the covenant of grace. 18. 恩典之约是在堕落之后被启动的,与工作之约有明显的区别。 The covenant of grace was inaugurated post-lapsum and is to be distinguished sharply from the covenant of works. 19. 恩典之约在起源时是单方面作的(monopleural),而施行时是双方面作的(dipleural); 即,从起源来说,福音的授予是无条件的;但领受它的恩惠是以称义之信心为条件的,而信心本身乃是神赐予祂所拣选之人白白的礼物。 The covenant of grace is monopleural in origin and dipleural in administration, i.e. the Gospel offer is unconditional in origin but the reception of its benefits is conditioned upon justifying faith which is itself only God's free gift to the elect. 20. 「单一圣约论」。或拒绝区分工作之约和恩典之约,都暗示其对律法和福音的混淆不清。Monocovenantalism or refusal to distinguish between the covenants of works and grace implies a confusion of Law and Gospel. 21. 「借着恩典入门,靠着行为得保守」的口号通常是与所谓的「保罗神学的新观点」有关。其实它正是保罗所谴责的加拉太教会的异端。 The slogan "in by grace, stay in by works," sometimes associated with the so-called "New Perspective on Paul," is nothing less than the Galatian heresy condemned by the Apostle Paul. 22. 信心得着恩典之约的恩惠, 乃是由于上帝的恩典和信心之目标(基督)的美德,并非因为信心(本身)的品质、德性或圣洁。 Faith receives the benefits of the covenant of grace because of God's grace and the virtue of its object (Christ) not because of its qualities, virtues, or sanctity. 23. 将圣约神学在律法和关系方面的观点平行并列是不必要的。对这三个圣约而言,个人与神的关系是以公义律法之关系为前提的。 It is unnecessary to juxtapose the legal and relational aspects of covenant theology. In all three covenants, personal relations are premised upon just legal relations. 24. 成圣是恩典之约的第二个恩惠,它源于称义。 Sanctity is the second benefit of the covenant of grace and flows from justification. 25. 成圣与称义同样都是神的恩典。 Sanctity is as gracious as justification. 26. 成圣在逻辑上和道德上是必要的,它是重生、信心、和称义的证据。 Sanctity is logically and morally necessary as evidence of regeneration, faith and justification. 27. (有别于称义)与成圣的关系来看,信心可以说是促成行动的,并且都是出于神的恩典而创始与保守的,但成圣之恩乃是以人的合作为必要条件的。 Considered relative to sanctification (in distinction from justification) faith can be said to be active and is begun and sustained by grace but involves human cooperation with sanctifying grace. 28. 成圣并非是称义的方法或根据。 Sanctity is no instrument or ground of justification. 29. 成圣乃出于正当地执行了神命定的圣约记号和标记。 Sanctity flows out of proper use of the divinely ordained covenant signs and seals. 30. 道德律(moral law)的第三重功用就是圣约生活的规范。 The third use of the moral law is norm of covenant life. 31. 否认律法的第三重功用(tertius usus legis)会导致「反律法主义」。 Denial of the third use of the Law (tertius usus legis) leads to antinomianism. 32. 律法的第三重功用,与第一重功用类似,都是要把我们引向基督。 The third use of the law, like the first use, also drives us to Christ. [b]八、 有关教会的论点Ecclesiastical[/b] 1. 教会同时是普世性和地方性的,认信基督的圣约团体。 The church is both the univ ersal and local Christ confessing covenant community. 2. 在认信基督的圣约团体中,神命定了三个特定的职分:牧师、长老、和执事。 God has ordained three special offices in the Christ confessing covenant community: minister, elder and deacon. 3. 基督徒有义务要加入一个认信基督的圣约团体。 Christians are obligated to join themselves to a true Christ confessing covenant community. 4. 一个真正的、认信基督的圣约团体的标记乃是:传讲纯正的福音(恩典之约)、施行纯正的圣约记号和印记(圣礼)、和执行教会的纪律。 The marks of a true, Christ confessing, covenant community are the pure preaching of the Gospel (the covenant of grace), the pure administration of the covenant signs and seals (sacraments) and the administration of discipline. 5. 在真正的认信基督的圣约团体以外,通常是无法活出纯正的基督徒生活的。 A genuinely Christian life cannot ordinarily be lived outside a true Christ confessing covenant community. 6. 认信基督的圣约团体的成员,既接受了圣约的记号和印记,就有道德义务要在生活上忠于这个圣约团体,并且定期和持续地使用恩典的途径(means of grace)(神的话和圣礼)。 Members of the Christ confessing covenant community who have received the sign and seal of the covenant are morally obligated to live in fidelity to that community and to make regular and consistent use of the means of grace (Word and sacrament). 7. 参与蒙恩的途径(可以说是恩典之约的要求,或是道德上的义务,抑或是恩典之约的第二个条件;但这些都是不同于那恩典之约的正当的条件和方法。 Attendance to the means of grace may be said to be stipulations or moral obligations or even second order conditions of the covenant of grace so long as they are distinguished from the proper condition or instrument of the covenant of grace. 8. 圣约的圣言有两个部份:律法和福音。 The Word of the covenant is in two parts: Law and Gospel. 9. 宣讲福音乃神所命定的观点,借着宣告福音,圣灵把信心作在恩典之约的成员心里。 The proclamation of the Gospel is the divinely ordained means by which the Holy Spirit works faith in the hearts of members of the covenant of grace. 10. 恩典之约有两个记号和印记(圣礼):洗礼和圣餐。 There are two signs and seals (sacraments) of the covenant of grace, Baptism and the Lord’s Supper. 11. 圣礼象征并印记了信徒与基督的死与埋葬的认同和联合。 The sacraments signify and seal the identity with and union of the believer with the death and burial of Christ. 12. 因为是恩典之约的记号和印记,它们是福音而非律法。 As signs and seals of the covenant of grace, they are Gospel not Law. 13. 圣礼是所有受礼者的记号,是被拣选者的印记。 The sacraments are signs to all and seals to the elect. 14. 圣约的记号和印记是选民的祝福,但是也为未受拣选者带来危难。 The covenant signs and seals are a blessing to the elect but come also with jeopardy to the reprobate. 15. 因为有形/无形(内在的/外在的)的区别,参与圣约的记号与印记有可能带给人害处(林前十;来六;十)。 Because of the visible/invisible distinction (internal/external) it is possible to participate in the covenant signs and seals to one's harm (1 Corinthians 10; Hebrews 6; 10). 16. 对所有的信徒而言,圣约的记号与印记是蒙典的途径,据此他们的信心确实得到增强,逐渐成为圣洁。 The covenant signs and seals are means of grace for all believers whereby their faith is genuinely strengthened and their sanctification advanced. 17. 因为否认了内在/外在的区别,「圣约的目的」的鼓吹者教导一种圣餐的观点,这种看法与罗马天主教的「工作本身就有功效(ex opere operato)」观念实际上是没有区分的。 Because they deny the internal/external distinction, advocates of "covenant objectivity" teach a view of the sacraments which is virtually indistinguishable from the Roman ex opere operato view. 18. 洗礼与圣餐的区别在于:洗礼是进入恩典之约的记号和印记。 In distinction from the Lord's Supper, Baptism is the sign and seal of initiation into the covenant of grace. 19. 在救赎的历史中,洗礼是继割礼之后成为进入恩典之约的记号和印记。 In the history of redemption, baptism succeeded circumcision as the sign and seal of initiation. 20. 广义来说,所有受洗礼者都可以说是在恩典之约内, 并非每一位受洗者都领受到恩典之约的实质或恩惠。 All baptized persons can be said to be in the covenant of grace in the broad sense. Not everyone who is baptized receives the substance or benefits of the covenant of grace. 21. 洗礼的本身并不能使人重生,或使受洗礼者与基督联合。 Baptism does not itself regenerate or necessarily unite the baptized to Christ. 22. 圣经要求未接受过洗礼的成人初信者接受洗礼。 Scripture requires the baptism of adult converts who have not been previously baptized. 23. 圣经教导圣约的儿童的洗礼。 Scripture teaches the baptism of covenant children. 24. 圣约儿童接受洗礼不是认为他们会重生,而是基于神的命令和附属于洗礼的应许。 We do not baptize covenant children on the presumption of their regeneration, but on basis of the divine command and promises attached to baptism. 25. 每一个反对圣约(婴孩)受洗的意见,就等于是反对在新约之父亚伯拉罕之下所执行的圣约(婴孩)割礼,这样的看法是不合理的。[注2] Every objection made against covenant (infant) baptism which can be made against covenant (infant) circumcision as practiced under Abraham the father of New Covenant believers is for that reason invalid. 26. 正如进入圣约的旧记号和印记(割礼)只能遵行一次,新的记号和印记(洗礼)也只能遵行一次。Just as the old sign and seal of covenant initiation (circumcision) could only be observed once so the new sign and seal of covenant initiation (baptism) can only be observed once. 27. 圣餐与洗礼的区别在于:圣餐是圣约更新的记号和印记。 In distinction from Baptism, the Supper is the sign and seal of covenant renewal. 28. 以圣餐是圣约更新的记号和印记来说,圣餐对那些不能了解基督(在圣餐)同在的本质,以及不认识圣餐是附带着祝福和伤害的人是不适当的。 As a sign of covenant renewal the Supper is not appropriate for those who cannot understand the nature of Christ's presence or the blessing and jeopardy which attach to the Supper. 29. 圣餐是所有以色列(圣约)筵席的应验。 The Lord's Supper is the fulfillment of all the typical Israelite feasts. 30. 就如同信徒吃逾越节的羊羔,基督是真正的神的羔羊,祂的确、并真实地在圣餐中与我们同在。 Just as believers fed on the Passover lamb, as the true Lamb of God, Christ is really and truly present in the Supper. 31. 在圣餐中,经由圣灵的运作,信徒借着信心吃喝基督真实的身体和血。 In the Supper, believers feed on Christ's true body and blood by faith, through the operation of the Holy Spirit. 32. 因为旧约的圣约团体每当他们聚会时都有吃喝的筵席,也因为圣餐是基督命定的圣约更新的记号和印记,每当新的圣约团体聚集时都应该遵行圣餐。 Because the old covenant community feasted every time they assembled and because the Supper is Christ's ordained sign and seal of covenant renewal it ought to be observed every time the new covenant community assembles. [b]九、辩证的论点Polemics[/b] 1. 就如「时代论」一样,「新圣约」神学(NCT)的释经学的三一神观念是有缺失的。 Like Dispensationalism, "New Covenant" theology (NCT) is not sufficiently Trinitarian in its hermeneutic. 2. 「新圣约神学」忽视了恩典之约的一致性。 NCT ignores the unity of the covenant of grace. 3. 「新圣约神学」没有注意到摩西和基督之间的明显不连续的事实。 It is unclear how NCT does not tend toward a radical discontinuity between Moses and Christ. 4. 「新圣约神学」并不区分摩西和亚伯拉罕之间的不同。 NCT does not account for the distinction between Moses and Abraham. 5. 「新圣约神学」倾向于反律法主义。 NCT tends toward antinomianism. 6. 时代论的历史的三个阶段(传统的时代论、修正的时代论、渐进的时代论)中的前两个时代论是与圣约神学有抵触的。 Dispensationalism of the three stages in the history of Dispensationalism (classic, modified, progressive), the first two are inimical to covenant theology. 7. 传统的和修正的时代论倾向于一种摩西与基督之间激烈的(马吉安教派)断裂。[注3] Classic and modified Dispensationalism tend to a radical (Marcionite) disjunction between Moses and Christ. 8. 如同神治论一般,时代论错误地把摩西之约当作是目标,而摩西时代的圣约是一个暂时的、预表性的安排。 Like Theonomy, Dispensationalism wrongly makes the Mosaic covenant the goal rather than a temporary, typical arrangement. 9. 因为假定了两种不同的子民,时代论主义使基督以祂的肉身所拆除的分隔墙重建起来了。 By positing two peoples, Dispensationalism resurrects the dividing wall which Christ abolished in his flesh. 10. 因为民事法和礼仪律是特别的和特意的与旧(摩西之)约有关联,在基督君王和祭司的工作上已经完成和满足了这些律法的要求,基督徒不再受它们约束。 Because the civil and ceremonial laws were specifically and intentionally tied to the Old (Mosaic) covenant, they were fulfilled in the Kingly and Priestly work of Christ and are therefore no longer binding on the Christian. 11. 摩西时期的民事法是特别和特意地与暂时的和预表性的旧(摩西之)约相连的,除了「摩西-大卫」的神权政治时期以外,它从未要被用来作为其他时期的标准。 The Mosaic civil law, because it was specifically and intentionally tied to the temporary and typical Old (Mosaic) covenant, it was never intended to serve as norm for any other state than Mosaic-Davidic theocracy. 12. 任何要重新设立摩西的民事法,或是其惩诫的企图,都没能理解旧约(摩西时期之圣约)那预表性的、暂时性的、和民族性的特质。 Any attempt to re-impose the Mosaic civil laws or their penalties fails to understand the typological, temporary, national character of the Old (Mosaic) covenant. 13. 道德律,在它表明了神的道德旨意内容的层面,是与旧约的献祭无关联的,它仍然不曾间断地约束着所有的人。 The moral law, to the degree it expresses the substance of God's moral will and is not tied to the ceremonies of the Old covenant continues to bind all human beings. 14. 在新约里,只有律法的第二重功用约束着政府。 In the New Covenant, only the second table of the Law can be said to bind the state. 15. 有两个国度:神的国度和人的国度。 There are two kingdoms: that of the right hand and that of the left. 16. 两个国度都在基督的权柄之下,但是却是按着不同的方法来管理的。 Both kingdoms are under the authority of Christ, but are administered in diverse ways. 17. 按着各国度不同的本质,基督徒在基督的主权之下同时生活于两个不同的国度之中。  In each kingdom, Christians live under Christ's lordship according to the nature of that kingdom. 18. 神的国度讲到执行神的话和圣礼的职事。 The kingdom of the Right hand describes the ministry of Word and sacrament. 19. 人的国度讲到在政府和教会的领域中行使权力。 The kingdom of the left hand describes the exercise of power in the ecclesiastical and civil realms. 20. 因为两个国度是有区别的,以及十诫与自然法在实质上是相同的,所以基督徒应该在政府的领域中,根据对律法的第二重功用的普世性和天然的认知,来拥护法律和政策。 Because of the distinction between the two kingdoms and because the Decalogue is substantially identical with natural law, Christians should advocate laws and policies in the civil realm on the basis of the universal, natural knowledge of the second table of the law. 注: 1. 译者注:Federal Theology. 拉丁語foedus即「立约」 2. 译者注:归正浸信教会对此观点持不同的看法。 3. 译者注:马吉安教派是早期教会的异端,他们不承认旧约是圣经正典的一部份。
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