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基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学

 
 
 

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神学问答44:所有发生在地球上的事,神都掌主权吗?  

2011-08-09 10:33:00|  分类: 改革宗神学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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44. 所有发生在地球上的事,神都掌主权吗?


Is God sovereign over every single event that takes place on earth?
诚之获授权翻译。
原文载于:http://www.monergism.com/thethreshold/articles/onsite/qna/godsovereign.html

对许多基督徒来说,神在所有发生的事上——无论有多渺小——都有绝对的主权,似乎是很可笑的观念。把神当作一个好好先生,只关心一些“大”事,不会在一些小事上蹚浑水,或者把祂当作是宇宙的“钟表制造者”,把宇宙上紧发条后就让它自行运转,这样的观念也是非常普遍的。其他人则是说,虽然神似乎在所有事上掌主权,祂并未积极地运用这个主权,主宰人的行动,因为这样就会违反了自由意志的原则,把人变成机器人。但是与其依靠这些哲学观念和反对意见,我们应该查考圣经,看圣经对这个议题是怎么说的。
To many Christians the idea of God's absolute sovereignty over every event that takes place, no matter how minute, seems laughable. The conception of God as a dignified old gentleman, who only concerns himself with the “big” matters, and would not get his hands dirty in minor affairs, or else as a cosmic “watchmaker,” who wound up the universe and lets it keep on ticking, is common. Others would say that, while God is somehow “sovereign” over everything, he does not actively exercise that sovereignty in directing the actions of men, for to do so would violate the principle of free will, and make people mere robots. But instead of dwelling on these philosophical ideas and objections, we ought instead to examine the scriptures, and see what they have to say on the subject.

幸运的是,圣经对这个问题的立场非常明確。圣经描述上帝是宇宙唯一且绝对的君王,祂统管万物,并随己意行作万事(出15:18;代上29:11-12;代下20:6;诗22:28)。祂不只是以抽象的方式掌主权,即祂保留根据祂的旨意积极地管理万事的权利,却选择不这样作;而是实际上积极地命定所有发生在地上的事,并使它们得以实现(申32:39:撒上2:6-8;伯9:12;12:6-10;诗33:11;115:3;135:6;赛14:24;45:7;徒15:17-18;弗1:11)。从最小的“偶然”的事,例如“签放在怀里”(箴16:33),到地球上的强大王国这等大事(例如,赛45:1-4),上帝总是根据祂的旨意使万事得以实现。祂统管并超自然地计划“巧合”的事(王上22:20,34,37),人邪恶的行动(创45:5;50:20;出4:21;士14:1-4;诗76:10;箴16:4;21:1;赛44:28;摩3:6;徒2:22-23;4:27-28),人的善行(约15:16;弗2:10;腓2:12-13),邪灵和天使的行动(撒上16:14-16;王上22:19-23;代上21:1/代下24:1;诗103:20-21;104:4),动物的习惯(民22:28;王上17:4;诗29:9;耶8:7;结32:4;但6:22),以及所有被造物的运行(创8:22;诗104:5-10, 13-14, 19-20;可4:39)。
Fortunately, the scriptures are very clear on this matter. The bible depicts God as the only and absolute King of the universe, who rules over all, and does everything he pleases (Exo 15:18; 1Ch 29:11-12; 2Ch 20:6; Psa 22:28). And not only is he sovereign in some abstract way, in that he retains the right to govern all events actively according to his will, but chooses not to do so; but he actually and actively ordains and brings to pass everything that takes place on the earth (Deu 32:39; 1Sa 2:6-8; Job 9:12; 12:6-10; Psa 33:11; 115:3; 135:6; Isa 14:24; Isa 45:7; Act 15:17-18; Eph 1:11). From the smallest matters of “chance,” such as the casting of a lot into the lap (Pro 16:33), to the greatest events of the earth's mighty kingdoms (e.g. Isa 45:1-4), God is bringing all things to pass according to his will. He governs and superintends “coincidental” happenings (1Ki 22:20, 34, 37), the wicked actions of men (Gen 45:5; 50:20; Exo 4:21; Jdg 14:1-4; Psa 76:10; Pro 16:4; 21:1; Isa 44:28; Amo 3:6; Act 2:22-23; 4:27-28), the good deeds of men (Joh 15:16; Eph 2:10; Phi 2:12-13), the actions of both evil spirits and good angels (1Sa 16:14-16; 1Ki 22:19-23; 1Ch 21:1/2Sa 24:1; Psa 103:20-21; 104:4), the habits of animals (Num 22:28; 1Ki 17:4; Psa 29:9; Jer 8:7; Eze 32:4; Dan 6:22), and the operations of all creation (Gen 8:22; Psa 104:5-10, 13-14, 19-20; Mar 4:39).

圣经很明确说,邪恶之事不可归罪给上帝(雅1:13),人要为自己的行动负道德责任(结18:4);所以我们不能容让我们对神的主权的理解引诱我们去减损这些真理;然而,在「神藉著人的行动,也在人的行动当中积极地统管」这件事上,圣经也同样地明确,我们不可加以否认。如果我们在某个方向上有错,就必须导正我们错误的思想,仰望十字架,这是上帝为历世历代所成就的旨意,是祂在世界开始之前就已经计划好的;但是祂是透过在道德上最该受谴责和受责难的行动,即犹大的背叛,犹太人的假见证,罗马人的酷刑等等,所成就的。
The bible is clear that God is in no way culpable for evil (Jam 1:13), and that humans are all morally responsible for their actions (Ezek 18:4); so we must not let our understanding of God's sovereignty tempt us to minimize these truths; however, the bible is equally clear on the matter of God's active governance in and through all the actions of men, and we must not deny this either. If we err in one direction or the other, we must set our errant thought aright by looking to the cross, where God accomplished his intention for the ages, which he had planned before the world began; but he did so through the most morally reprehensible and culpable actions ever done, in the betrayal of Judas, the false witnessing of the Jews, the cruelty of the Romans, etc. (see Acts 2:23; 4:27-28).

For Further Study:
Letter from Visitor on Calvinism, Evil and God's Holiness by John Hendryx
Essays on the Sovereigty of God @Monergism
Essays on God's Meticulous Providence Over All Things @Monergism
Essays on God's Sovereignty Over Ordaining Evil, Yet Remaining Without Sin @Monergism
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