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基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学





2011-09-02 07:31:00|  分类: 改革宗神学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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59. 什么是“双重预定”?圣经这样教导吗?

What is “double predestination,” and does the bible teach it?

“双重预定”的意思只是说,正如神预定了一些而不是所有的人,使他们得到永恒的救恩,因此,祂也预定其他人受永恒的刑罚;“双重”预定这第二部分,即上帝派定所有未蒙拣选的,要遭受永恒的灭亡,有时候也被称为“遗弃”(reprobation);因此,那些非选民就被称为“弃民”(reprobate)。从逻辑上说,如果下面的前提可以成立,那么,遗弃的教义必然是真的:1) 上帝主权地拣选了一些人得救;2) 上帝没有拣选所有的人得救;3) 除了上帝主权的拣选之外,人不可能得到救恩。换句话说,如果上帝无误地选择要救一些人,也断绝其他人得救的任何其他方式,祂就实际上对所有曾经活着的人做了选择:祂要不是选择救这个人,就是断绝任何使他得救的盼望。所有这些前提当然都可以在圣经中找到。因此,很明显地,上帝永恒的选择包括要救一些人,而定罪其他的人。
The term “double predestination” simply means that, just as God predestines some, but not all, to eternal salvation, so he predestines others to eternal punishment; this second part of “double” predestination, God's appointment of all but the elect unto eternal destruction, is sometimes called “reprobation”; and those who are not the elect are thus called the “reprobate”. Logically, the doctrine of reprobation is necessarily true if the following premises can be established: 1) God sovereignly chooses some men for salvation; 2) God does not choose all men for salvation; 3) there is no possibility of obtaining salvation apart from God's sovereign election thereunto. In other words, if God has chosen infallibly to save some, and has cut off any other means of salvation for all others, he has effectively made a choice concerning every person that has lived; he has chosen either to save him or to cut him off from all hope of salvation. Each of these premises may certainly be found in the bible; and so, it is manifest that God's eternal choice involves the salvation of some and the damnation of others.

The doctrine of double predestination is frequently argued against in the most passionate of terms, in large part because of a gross misunderstanding of what the doctrine actually asserts. Opponents of the doctrine often operate under the assumption that the way in which God brings the elect to salvation must be precisely the same as the way in which he brings the reprobate to damnation. Of course, salvation has its beginnings in the sovereign, monergistic work of God in regeneration, so that all credit is due to him. If double predestination is true, some people suppose, then God must also be sovereignly responsible for the beginnings of damnation in the reprobate: he must monergistically produce sin in the hearts of the non-elect, which will ultimately end in eternal judgment. This understanding of double predestination makes God the author of sin, and is utterly unbiblical.

However, even if we must reject the distortion of double predestination that sees God as monergistically producing sin unto condemnation just as he monergistically produces faith unto salvation, we must also reject the denial of double predestination in any sense. God is not the author of sin, but he does harden sinful men for his own righteous purposes of judgment. The bible is clear that just as God chooses some for mercy and salvation, he chooses others for judicial hardening and reprobation: when he loved Jacob, even before his birth, he also hated Esau at the same time (Rom. 9:10-13); when he chose to save Israel from Egypt for the glory of his grace, he also chose to raise up Pharaoh in hardened rebellion, for the glory of his wrath (Rom. 9:17-18); and in fact, he does this with all men, choosing from the same lump of human clay some to make into vessels of honor and some to make into vessels of dishonor, in order to show by the one class the glory of his mercy and by the other class the glory of his judgment and wrath (Rom. 9:21-23). Nor is it just the apostle Paul who speaks to this issue so clearly: Peter also speaks of those to whom Christ is the precious Cornerstone of salvation and those who stumble against him to their eternal destruction; and of those who are reprobate, he says clearly that they were “predestined” to disobey the word and so to perish (1 Pet. 2:6-8).

The great reformed confessions of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries deal wisely and biblically with this question, on the one and affirming the doctrine of double predestination, but on the other hand guarding against the error of charging God with culpability for sin. A good example comes from the Westminster Confession of Faith:

“As God hath appointed the elect unto glory, so hath He, by the eternal and most free purpose of His will, foreordained all the means thereunto. Wherefore, they who are elected . . . are effectually called unto faith in Christ by His Spirit working in due season, are justified, adopted, sanctified, and kept by His power, through faith, unto salvation. Neither are any other redeemed by Christ, effectually called, justified, adopted, sanctified, and saved, but the elect only. The rest of mankind God was pleased, according to the unsearchable counsel of His own will, whereby He extendeth or withholdeth mercy, as He pleaseth, for the glory of His Sovereign power over His creatures, to pass by; and to ordain them to dishonour and wrath for their sin, to the praise of His glorious justice.” (Chap. III — Art. VI and VII)

For Further Study:
Double Predestination by R.C. Sproul
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