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基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学

 
 
 

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神学问答59:什么是“双重预定”?圣经这样教导吗?  

2011-09-02 07:31:00|  分类: 改革宗神学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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59. 什么是“双重预定”?圣经这样教导吗?


What is “double predestination,” and does the bible teach it?
诚之获授权翻译。
原文载于:http://www.monergism.com/thethreshold/articles/onsite/qna/double.html

“双重预定”的意思只是说,正如神预定了一些而不是所有的人,使他们得到永恒的救恩,因此,祂也预定其他人受永恒的刑罚;“双重”预定这第二部分,即上帝派定所有未蒙拣选的,要遭受永恒的灭亡,有时候也被称为“遗弃”(reprobation);因此,那些非选民就被称为“弃民”(reprobate)。从逻辑上说,如果下面的前提可以成立,那么,遗弃的教义必然是真的:1) 上帝主权地拣选了一些人得救;2) 上帝没有拣选所有的人得救;3) 除了上帝主权的拣选之外,人不可能得到救恩。换句话说,如果上帝无误地选择要救一些人,也断绝其他人得救的任何其他方式,祂就实际上对所有曾经活着的人做了选择:祂要不是选择救这个人,就是断绝任何使他得救的盼望。所有这些前提当然都可以在圣经中找到。因此,很明显地,上帝永恒的选择包括要救一些人,而定罪其他的人。
The term “double predestination” simply means that, just as God predestines some, but not all, to eternal salvation, so he predestines others to eternal punishment; this second part of “double” predestination, God's appointment of all but the elect unto eternal destruction, is sometimes called “reprobation”; and those who are not the elect are thus called the “reprobate”. Logically, the doctrine of reprobation is necessarily true if the following premises can be established: 1) God sovereignly chooses some men for salvation; 2) God does not choose all men for salvation; 3) there is no possibility of obtaining salvation apart from God's sovereign election thereunto. In other words, if God has chosen infallibly to save some, and has cut off any other means of salvation for all others, he has effectively made a choice concerning every person that has lived; he has chosen either to save him or to cut him off from all hope of salvation. Each of these premises may certainly be found in the bible; and so, it is manifest that God's eternal choice involves the salvation of some and the damnation of others.

许多人经常用最热情的字眼来反驳双重预定的教义,大多数是因為对这个教义的实际主张存在很大的误解。反对者常常以这种假设出发,即上帝必然是以完全相同的方式使选民得救,也使“弃民”被定罪。当然,救恩的开始是神主权的、单方面的重生的工作,所以一切的功劳要归给上帝。如果双重预定是真的,有些人就假定,那么上帝也必须主权地为弃民被定罪负责:祂必然单方面地在非选民的心中制造罪,使他们最终得到永恒的审判。这种对双重预定的认识,使神成为罪的来源。这完全是不合圣经的。
The doctrine of double predestination is frequently argued against in the most passionate of terms, in large part because of a gross misunderstanding of what the doctrine actually asserts. Opponents of the doctrine often operate under the assumption that the way in which God brings the elect to salvation must be precisely the same as the way in which he brings the reprobate to damnation. Of course, salvation has its beginnings in the sovereign, monergistic work of God in regeneration, so that all credit is due to him. If double predestination is true, some people suppose, then God must also be sovereignly responsible for the beginnings of damnation in the reprobate: he must monergistically produce sin in the hearts of the non-elect, which will ultimately end in eternal judgment. This understanding of double predestination makes God the author of sin, and is utterly unbiblical.

然而,即使我们必须拒绝这种对双重预定的扭曲,说上帝单方面地制造罪,使人被定罪,正如祂单方面地制造信心使人得救,我们也必须拒绝在任何意义上对双重预定的否定。上帝不是罪的作者,但是为了正当审判的目的,祂的确使罪人的心刚硬。圣经明确说,正如上帝拣选一些人,使他们得到怜悯与救恩,祂也拣选了一些人,审判他们,使他们的心刚硬而被上帝弃绝:在雅各出生前,祂就爱雅各,但是祂同时也恶以扫(罗9:10-13);当祂为了祂荣耀的恩典选择拯救以色列脱离埃及,为了彰显祂怒气的荣耀,祂也选择兴起法老王,使他的心刚硬而违抗(罗9:17-18);而事实上,祂也这样对待全人类,选择一些泥块作成荣耀的器皿,另一些则作成卑贱的器皿,这是为了显明祂怜悯的荣耀,以及审判与怒气的荣耀(罗9:21-23)。不只有使徒保罗清楚说到这点,彼得也说到,有些人以基督为救恩的房角石,有些人则以基督为使他们得永恒审判的绊脚石;对那些弃民,彼得明确说他们是被“预定”要不顺从神的话,因此要灭亡的(彼前2:6-8)。
However, even if we must reject the distortion of double predestination that sees God as monergistically producing sin unto condemnation just as he monergistically produces faith unto salvation, we must also reject the denial of double predestination in any sense. God is not the author of sin, but he does harden sinful men for his own righteous purposes of judgment. The bible is clear that just as God chooses some for mercy and salvation, he chooses others for judicial hardening and reprobation: when he loved Jacob, even before his birth, he also hated Esau at the same time (Rom. 9:10-13); when he chose to save Israel from Egypt for the glory of his grace, he also chose to raise up Pharaoh in hardened rebellion, for the glory of his wrath (Rom. 9:17-18); and in fact, he does this with all men, choosing from the same lump of human clay some to make into vessels of honor and some to make into vessels of dishonor, in order to show by the one class the glory of his mercy and by the other class the glory of his judgment and wrath (Rom. 9:21-23). Nor is it just the apostle Paul who speaks to this issue so clearly: Peter also speaks of those to whom Christ is the precious Cornerstone of salvation and those who stumble against him to their eternal destruction; and of those who are reprobate, he says clearly that they were “predestined” to disobey the word and so to perish (1 Pet. 2:6-8).

16-17世纪伟大的改革宗信仰告白,很智慧而合乎圣经地处理了这个问题,一方面肯定双重预定的教义,另一方面反驳要神对罪负责的控诉。威敏思特信条是这么说的:
The great reformed confessions of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries deal wisely and biblically with this question, on the one and affirming the doctrine of double predestination, but on the other hand guarding against the error of charging God with culpability for sin. A good example comes from the Westminster Confession of Faith:

上帝既预定选民得荣耀,便以其永恒的、完全自由的目的,预定了一切达此目的的途径。所以凡被拣选的,虽在亚当里堕落了,却被基督救赎。由祂的灵按时运行,有效地呼召他们归信基督;他们称义,得儿子的名分,成圣,并藉着信,得蒙祂的权能保守,以致得救。除选民以外,无人被基督救赎,蒙有效的恩召,称义,得儿子的名分,成圣,并得救。至于其余的人,上帝照着祂那不可测度的计划,施与或保留怜悯,为了使祂对受造者的主权,得着荣耀,祂随己意撇弃他们,并预定他们因自己的罪受羞辱,遭忿怒,使祂荣耀的公义得着称赞。(第三章,第6,7条)
“As God hath appointed the elect unto glory, so hath He, by the eternal and most free purpose of His will, foreordained all the means thereunto. Wherefore, they who are elected . . . are effectually called unto faith in Christ by His Spirit working in due season, are justified, adopted, sanctified, and kept by His power, through faith, unto salvation. Neither are any other redeemed by Christ, effectually called, justified, adopted, sanctified, and saved, but the elect only. The rest of mankind God was pleased, according to the unsearchable counsel of His own will, whereby He extendeth or withholdeth mercy, as He pleaseth, for the glory of His Sovereign power over His creatures, to pass by; and to ordain them to dishonour and wrath for their sin, to the praise of His glorious justice.” (Chap. III — Art. VI and VII)

For Further Study:
Double Predestination by R.C. Sproul
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