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基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学

 
 
 

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神学问答60: “堕落前拣选”、“堕落后拣选”是什么意思?圣经的教导是什么?  

2011-09-03 00:53:00|  分类: 改革宗神学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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60. “堕落前拣选”、“堕落后拣选”是什么意思?圣经的教导是什么?


What do the terms “supralapsarianism,” and “infralapsarianism” mean, and does the bible teach one or the other?
诚之获授权翻译。
原文载于:http://www.monergism.com/thethreshold/articles/onsite/qna/superinfra.html


“堕落前拣选”(supralapsarianism)和“堕落后拣选”(infralapsarianism或sublapsarianism)与上帝永恒谕旨的逻辑次序有关。基本上,这个问题在于:上帝定旨要拯救一些人,是在祂定旨要允许人堕落(laps)之前(supra)或之后(infra)。堕落后拣选论者争论说,为了不让上帝背负不公义或犯罪的罪名,上帝拣选人得救必然是从已经是罪人的这个领域中拣选的;因此,预定人堕落的谕旨,在逻辑上必然要早于定旨要拣选人得救(先预定人的堕落,后预定救恩)。否则,预定那些还没有堕落的人被毁灭,就会让上帝背黑锅,要为人犯罪和背叛负责,说这是神永恒的计划对人的要求。
The terms“supralapsarianism,” and “infralapsarianism” (sometimes called “sublapsarianism”) have to do with the logical order of God's eternal decrees of salvation. The question, basically, is this: did God's decree to save a certain people come before (supra) or after (infra) his decree to permit the fall (laps). Infralapsarians argue that, in order not to charge God with injustice or sin, it is necessary that God's election of men to salvation be made from a field of men who are sinners already; hence, the decree to ordain the fall must logically come before the decree to elect men to salvation. Otherwise, in ordaining to destruction men who had not yet fallen, the charge could be made against God that he was responsible for their sin and rebellion, which his eternal plan demanded of them.

堕落前拣选的人回应说,不,上帝的永恒计划从一开始就是要救赎一些人,没有要救赎其他人,虽然神要求犯罪和堕落,但是在逻辑上,上帝并不因此就有罪,此外,这更符合圣经的证据,就是上帝主权地使用邪恶来完成祂先前的设计。上帝对宇宙和救赎历史最终的计划是羔羊的得胜——摧毁祂的仇敌,拯救祂的百姓;而此计划在逻辑上需要罪的存在,也要上帝透过公义的审判和主权的怜悯来胜过罪。如果上帝在历史中最终的心意,是在基督的位格和工作站彰显祂的荣耀;如果基督多重的荣耀包括对罪之公义的愤怒,那么,上帝永恒的救赎计划就必须包括堕落,而不只是回应堕落。
But no, the supralapsarian responds, God's eternal plan to redeem some and not others from the outset, while requiring sin and the Fall, does not logically make God culpable, and furthermore, it better fits the biblical evidence of God's prerogative to use evil for the accomplishment of his prior designs. God's ultimate purpose for creation and redemptive history is the triumph of the Lamb both in the destruction of his enemies and the salvation of his people; and this plan logically requires the existence of sin, and also of God's triumph over that sin through righteous judgment and sovereign mercy. If God's ultimate purpose in history is the display of his glory in the person and work of Christ; and if the manifold glory of Christ includes righteous wrath against sin; then God's eternal purpose of redemption necessitated the Fall, and did not just respond to it.

堕落前拣选和堕落后拣选基本的计划可以展示如下:
The basic schema of infralapsarianism and supralapsarianism may be displayed as follows:

堕落后拣选Infralapsarianism
1. 创造世界和(所有的)人的谕旨
the decree to create the world and (all) men
2. (所有的)人会堕落的谕旨
the decree that (all) men would fall
3. 在基督里拣选一些堕落的人得救(以及遗弃其他的人)
the election of some fallen men to salvation in Christ (and the reprobation of the others)
4. 藉著基督的工作救赎选民的谕旨
the decree to redeem the elect by the cross work of Christ
5. 把基督救赎的福分施行给选民的谕旨
the decree to apply Christ's redemptive benefits to the elect

(历史的)堕落前拣选Supralapsarianism (historical)
1. 在基督里拣选一些堕落的人得救(以及遗弃其他的人)
the election of some men to salvation in Christ (and the reprobation of the others)
2. 创造世界和两类的人的谕旨
the decree to create the world and both kinds of men
3. 所有的人会堕落的谕旨
the decree that all men would fall
4. 靠基督十架的工作,救赎选民——他们现在是罪人——的谕旨。
the decree to redeem the elect, who are now sinners, by the cross work of Christ
5. 把基督救赎的福分施行给这些被拣选的罪人的谕旨
the decree to apply Christ's redemptive benefits to these elect sinners

这些清单展示了对此问题的传统认识。不过,晚近的神学家注意到这两个清单都没有逻辑地准确描绘出所有理性的受造物如何追寻他们的目标:首先,他们决定最终和最想要的,然后倒回去看,要达到这个目标需要哪些步骤。如果上帝最终的目标是羔羊在主权的怜悯和公义审判的荣耀,那么,罪人就是必要的;如果必须有罪人,就必须有堕落;如果有堕落,就必须创造公义的世界;因此,上帝谕旨的逻辑次序就会是修正的堕落前拣选论,如下:
These lists display the traditional understandings of the lapsarian question. However, recent theologians have noted that neither list accurately depicts the logical way in which all reasonable creatures pursue their goals: first, they determine what they ultimately and primarily want, and then they walk backwards, as it were, through all the steps necessary to get there. If God's ultimate goal is the glory of the Lamb in sovereign mercy and righteous judgment, then there is a need for sinners; if there are to be sinners, there must be a fall; if there is a fall, there must be a world created in righteousness; hence, the logical order of God's decrees would be a modified supralapsarianism, as follows:

堕落前拣选论(修正的):
Supralapsarianism (modified)
1. 神拣选一些人在基督里得救(也遗弃其他有罪的人,使选民知道神恩典的怜悯的丰盛)
the election of some men to salvation in Christ (and the reprobation of the rest of sinful mankind in order to make known the riches of God's gracious mercy to the elect)

2. 神谕旨把基督救赎的福分施行到被拣选的罪人身上
the decree to apply Christ's redemptive benefits to the elect sinners

3. 神谕旨要用基督十架的工作来救赎被拣选的罪人
the decree to redeem the elect sinners by the cross work of Chris

4. 神谕旨人会堕落
the decree that men should fall

5. 神谕旨要创造世界、创造人
the decree to create the world and men

任何关于这个问题的讨论,必须强调这些观点的共同点:即上帝在创世以前就谕旨的永恒救赎。从逻辑上来说,也许最后的方案是最可能的;不过,没有一种立场应该让人全心拥抱到要捆绑人良心的地步;圣经对这个问题的提法,没有明确到我们必须坚定地持守某一个立场。也许马丁?路德的故事可以教导我们:当一些好发问的神学家,问他有关上帝在创造世界以前在干什么的时候,路德巧妙地回答:“祂正在为那些想要刺探这类问题的愚蠢神学家们预备地狱。”当然,这个回答不必当真,但其中有些智慧,特别是我们提到这类问题时。
In any discussion of the lapsarian debate, it should be emphasized what all the views have in common: and that is, that God decreed all the events of his eternal redemption from before the creation of the world. Logically, perhaps, the last scheme is the most defensible; however, no position should be so heartily embraced as to be made binding upon men's consciences; the scriptures do not address the topic clearly enough for so firm an adherence. Perhaps a story from the life of Martin Luther would be instructive here: when some inquisitive theologian asked him what God was doing before he created the world, Luther quipped, “He was busy creating hell for foolish theologians who pry into such questions”. The response is a little tongue-in-cheek, of course, but perhaps there is some wisdom in it, particularly when we are addressing the lapsarian question.

以上清单取自Robert L. Reymond所著《基督教信仰新系统神学》(A New Systematic Theology of the Christian Faith )
[All of the above lists are taken from Robert L. Reymond, A New Systematic Theology of the Christian Faith (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1998), pp. 479-489.]
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