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基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学

 
 
 

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M. Kline 申命记注释  

2011-10-09 11:14:08|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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推荐一份申命记的注释:

希望有一天可以把它翻译出来。

书名。申命记的英文书名(Deuteronomy)显然是根据七十士译本把1718的“律法的副本”(a copy of this law),错误地翻译为“第二份律法”to deuteronomion toutothis second law而來的。(译按:中文书名相当准确,是律法的“重申”,不是第二份律法)。希伯来文的书名devarim, words,是一个习惯的做法,以书卷开头的语词作为书名。申命记一开始是这么说的:这些是摩西所说的话11上)。由于近东“宗主条约”suzerainty treaties也恰恰是以这种方式起头的,因此,希伯来文的书名便成了一条线索,可以让我们辨识此书的文学特性。

Title. The English title of the book of Deuteronomy is apparently based on the LXX's mistranslation of the phrase, "a copy of this law" (Deut 17:18), as (to deuteronomion touto), "this second law." The Jewish title, (devarim), "words," arises from the custom of using the opening word(s) of a book as its name. Deuteronomy opens with the statement, "These are the words which Moses spake" (1:1 a, ASV). Since ancient suzerainty treaties began in precisely this way, the Jewish title draws attention to one of the clues which identify the literary character of this book.


日期与作者。在现代高等评判对摩西五经的研究,以及对旧约文学和神学的一般性研究中,申命记的来源都具有非常重大的意义。根据旧版的“发展说”(Developmental Hypothesis),申命记来自主前第七世纪,它是约西亚改革(参王下2232325)的基础,据说是为了有利于中央集权式的敬拜(参124-14的注解)。此观点的修正形式继续存在于负面的批判者当中;但有些人会主张其写作日期是在被掳之后,其他人则追溯申命记立法到王国的早期,甚至王国之前的阶段。有一些据称是摩西五经的文件,在确定它们的日期时,很重要的是有这样一种倾向,就是不用一个长期的年代演变来解释它们之间在一些特殊编码上的所谓冲突,而是假定这些冲突是来自于敬拜地点的差异。具体地说,申命记因此被追溯到归属于示剑的圣殿。一种现代的路向是不把申命记和摩西五经的前四部书联在一起,让五经变成“四经”(Tetrateuch),而把从申命记到列王纪下的所有书卷归属于“申命记式文学历史传统”(Deuteronomic literary-historical tradition)。

当代的正统基督徒学者和先前的基督教与犹太传统都接受申命记本身明白宣称,即申命记是摩西对聚集在何烈山的以色列会众,在告别仪式中的演讲。申命记31924陈述摩西说出并写下“这律法的话”。很可能是某一位神治政体的官员,记下摩西的死亡(34章),也许包括摩西的歌和见证(33章)而完成这份文件。他也可能在这份律法文件上添加上其他简要的骨架。

申命记的结构与古典的的、主前第二世纪中叶形式的宗主盟约或条约有高度的一致性。我们可以藉此确认,它是前后一致的统一体,确实是摩西的著作。(详见以下的注释。另参见M. G. Kline, “王朝之约Dynastic Covenant,威敏思特神学月刊,总23卷,Nov. 1960,第一期,1-15页。)

Date and Authorship. The origin of Deuteronomy is of crucial significance in modern higher critical study of the Pentateuch and, indeed, in studies of Old Testament literature and theology in general. According to the older Developmental Hypothesis, Deuteronomy originated in the seventh century B.C. and was the basis for Josiah's reform (cf. 2 Kings 22:3-23:25), allegedly in the interests of a centralized cultus (cf. Commentary on Deut 12:4-14). That view in modified forms continues among negative critics; but some would suggest a post-Exilic date, and others trace the Deuteronomic legislation to the early monarchic and even pre-monarchic period. Significant for the dating of the several alleged documents of the Pentateuch is the tendency to explain the supposed conflict of their codes not by resort to a long chronological evolution but by positing different geographic - cultic sources for them. Deuteronomy, in particular, is then traced to a Shechemite sanctuary. Instead of associating Deuteronomy with the first four books of the Pentateuch, one modern approach thinks in terms of a Tetrateuch and of a Deuteronomic literary-historical tradition comprising all the books from Deuteronomy through 2 Kings.

Current orthodox Christian scholarship joins older Christian and Jewish tradition in accepting the plain claims of Deuteronomy itself to be the farewell, ceremonial addresses of Moses to the Israelite assembly in the plains of Moab. Deut 31:9 and 24 state that Moses wrote as well as spoke "the words of this law." Some theocratic officer, in all likelihood, completed the document by recording Moses' death (ch. 34) and probably Moses' witness song (ch. 32) and testament (ch. 33). Possibly he also added certain other brief skeletal elements to this legal document.

The unity and authenticity of Deuteronomy as a Mosaic product are confirmed by the remarkable conformity of its structure to that of the suzerainty type of covenant or treaty in its classic, mid-second millennium B.C. form. (See further below and consult Commentary for details. See also M. G. Kline, "Dynastic Covenant," WTJ, XXIII (Nov. 1960), 1, pp. 1-15.)

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