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守诚阁

基督徒世界观 译介圣经神学

 
 
 

日志

 
 

约翰福音19:17-30  

2012-04-03 06:08:55|  分类: 释经讲道 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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【释经讲章】

约翰福音19:31-42 

 台北希望教会 柯牧师 4/1/2012



We are now one week away from Easter Sunday, and in our passage this morning our Savior has died and will be buried.

下个礼拜就是复活节了,而我们今天读到的经文是我们的救主死了,然后将会被埋葬。

Preparing for this message was particularly challenging for me, as this is the first time I will preach a passage in which our Savior is dead the entire time.

准备这段讲道对我来说特别具有挑战性因为这是我第一次传讲这样的经文:我们的救主在这段经文中,都处在死亡的状态。

It is Friday afternoon, and the Son of God has accomplished all and fulfilled all.

这是星期五的下午,神子成就了一切,也应验了一切。

He declared that it was finished, and he committed his spirit to the Father.

祂宣告一切都成了,并把祂的灵魂交托给天父

Now he hangs on dead on the cross, and the two thieves beside him are dying.

现在祂被挂在十架上,身旁的两个强盗也即将死去。

But at this moment, even when it seems all has been lost, victory has been won.

但是就在此刻,即使表面看来是完全的失败,但基督却是得胜的一方。

Even in the midst of such sorrow and agony, the effects of Christ's death had striking victorious effects.

即使在这样的伤痛中,基督的死仍然有致胜的效果,令人惊叹。

Matthew tells us (27:51-52) that when Jesus died the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom, and the earth shook, and rocks were split, and tombs were opened, and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised.

马太福音告诉我们,当耶稣死的那一刻,圣所里的幔子从上到下裂成两半;地面震动,石头崩裂; 而且坟墓开了,许多睡了的圣徒的身体也复活了(2751-52)。

There was something about Jesus even in his suffering on the cross that converted one of the two thieves.

就算在十字架上受难,耶稣也让其中一位强盗悔改归向祂。

He said, “Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom!”

那强盗说:“耶稣啊,你得国降临的时候,求你记念我!”(路加福音23:42

And Jesus answered, “Today you will be with me in paradise.”

耶稣回答说:“今日你要同我在乐园里了。” (23:43)

And there was something about the way that Jesus breathed his last that caused one of the Roman Centurions to praise God and confess, “Truly this man was the Son of God.”

耶稣咽下最后一口气的情形,也让罗马的百夫长赞美神,并承认:“这真是神的儿子了!”

A criminal was changed.

祂改变了一个罪犯。   

A Roman soldier was changed.

翻转了一个罗马士兵。

And now in our passage two powerful but previously cowardly Jewish men will be changed by the way that Jesus died.

在今天的经文中,两个有权势却胆小的犹太人,也因着耶稣死的样式而得到转变。

But what I want to address now, is what impact should a dead Savior hanging on a cross and then being buried have on you today?

但我现在要说的是,一个被钉死在十字架上并随后被埋葬的救主,对现今的你有什么影响?

 

The main thing I want to accomplish this morning of course is to explain and apply this passage with the purpose in mind that John intended – namely, to increase our faith.

今天早上我想要和使徒约翰一样,讲解并应用这段经文,好加添我们的信心。

He says this expressly in vs. 35: “these things are written so that you also might believe.”

他在第35节这样写到:“并且他知道自己所说的是真的——叫你们也可以信。”

But how could this dire situation strengthen our faith?

但这样悲惨的景况到底要如何坚定我们的信心呢?

That's the main thing I want us to consider.

这就是我要大家思考的重点。

And secondly, I want us to consider, what relevance does Christ's burial have for us as his disciples?

第二,我要大家思考:作为基督的门徒,祂的埋葬和我们有甚么关联呢?

And hopefully, this will instruct us not only how to die well, but how to live rightly.

盼望这不只是教导我们要如何死得精采,更教导我们要如何活得正确。

 

READ TEXT

经文:

19:31犹太人因这日是预备日,又因那安息日是个大日,就求彼拉多叫人打断他们的腿,把他们拿去,免得尸首当安息日留在十字架上。

19:32于是兵丁来,把头一个人的腿,并与耶稣同钉第二个人的腿,都打断了。

19:33 只是来到耶稣那里,见他已经死了,就不打断他的腿。

19:34 惟有一个兵拿枪扎他的肋旁,随即有血和水流出来。

19:35看见这事的那人就作见证─他的见证也是真的,并且他知道自己所说的是真的─叫你们也可以信。

19:36这些事成了,为要应验经上的话说:他的骨头一根也不可折断。

19:37 经上又有一句说:他们要仰望自己所扎的人。

19:38这些事以后,有亚利马太人约瑟,是耶稣的门徒,只因怕犹太人,就暗暗的作门徒。他来求彼拉多,要把耶稣的身体领去。彼拉多允准,他就把耶稣的身体领去了。

19:39又有尼哥底母,就是先前夜里去见耶稣的,带着没药和沉香约有一百斤前来。

19:40他们就照犹太人殡葬的规矩,把耶稣的身体用细麻布加上香料裹好了。

19:41在耶稣钉十字架的地方有一个园子,园子里有一座新坟墓,是从来没有葬过人的。

19:42只因是犹太人的预备日,又因那坟墓近,他们就把耶稣安放在那里。

 

When Jesus was still alive it seemed there was nothing he could not do – he cured the lepers, healed the blind, raised the dead, commanded the wind and the waves, cast out demons, forgave sins and fulfilled prophecy.

当耶稣还活着的时候,似乎没有甚么东西是祂做不到的——祂医治了痲疯病人和瞎眼的,让死人复活,命令风浪,赶鬼、赦罪、应验先知的预言。

But now his body hangs lifeless and powerless on the cross.

但现在祂的身体毫无生气,无力地挂在十字架上。

Now we know that Easter Sunday is coming, but the disciples do not understand that the resurrection is just around the corner.

如今我们知道复活节的星期天就要来临,但门徒们并不知道基督就要复活了。

Death has taken their master from them, and their hope as well. Has all been lost?

死亡夺去了他们的主人,也夺去了他们的盼望。是否一切都完了呢?

 

But even before Easter, in fact, as soon as the spirit of Jesus is given into the Father's hands, God demonstrates that he remains sovereign.

就算在复活节之前,当耶稣把灵魂交到天父的手中时,神也已经显明祂还在掌权。

He is still in control.

祂依然掌管一切。

Satan and those who follow him have not won.

撒但与那些跟随牠的人并没有得胜。

By God's providence, everything that happens will happen just according to prophecy.

靠着神的摄理,一切都如当初的预言一般发生了。

See, it is Friday, the day before the Sabbath.

这是星期五,安息日的前一天。

And it is not just any Sabbath, but a special Sabbath.

而这个安息日是一个特别的安息日。

Tomorrow is the Sabbath for the Passover feast, when they remember that the firstborn sons ofEgypt died, but the firstborn sons of Israel were saved because a special unblemished lamb was slain at twilight in their place.

次日就是逾越节的安息日,在这一天他们会纪念埃及的长子被击杀,但以色列的长子们,因为一只完美无瑕的特殊的羔羊,在黄昏时,会代替他们被宰杀,使他们得救。

God said, “when I see the blood I will pass over you, and no plague will befall you” (Ex. 12:13).

神说:“我一见这血,就越过你们去,灾殃必不临到你们身上灭你们。”(出埃及记12:13

But it was never possible for the blood of animals to take away sin.

但动物的血无法除去罪恶。

Those lambs that died so many years earlier were just a picture and a promise of the true Lamb of God who would take away the sins of the world.

那些许多年前被宰的羔羊,只是象征并应许那真正的神羔羊,会来除去世上一切的罪恶。

And that is the Lamb Jesus Christ, who has now died outside the city, in the same area that Isaac was spared and at the same time that the preparation for the Passover is occurring.

那只羔羊就是耶稣基督,此刻死在城外,当初以撒也被赦免在同一个地点,此刻人们也在为逾越节做预备。

 

Because it is such a special day tomorrow, the Jews request that the legs of the crucified may be broken so that they would quickly die and be taken down.

因为明天是一个特别的日子,犹太人就请求打断被钉之人的腿,好让他们快点死去,可以早点从十字架上被拿下来。

This was not common practice for the Romans – often times in took days for crucified people to die, and even after that the Romans would often leave the dead bodies up there for more days to rot in the sun and be consumed by birds.

但这不是罗马人的习惯——这些被钉的人经常要过了几天才会死;他们死后,罗马人也会让尸体被阳光曝晒至腐烂,让飞鸟来啄食。

But God will even use those who delivered up his Son to death to bring about prophecy.

但神也会使用那些把祂儿子交出去受死的人,使预言实现。

Because tomorrow is a special day, the two thieves will die this day, fulfilling what Jesus said to the believing thief in Luke (23:43), “Today you will be with Me in Paradise.”

因为明天是个特别的日子,所以今天在耶稣旁边的两个强盗会死,好应验耶稣在路加福音中对那个信了的强盗所讲的话:“今日你要同我在乐园里了。”(路加福音23:43

So the legs of the robbers are broken, and consequently they soon die.

所以强盗的腿被打断过不了多久他们就死了。

But Jesus is already dead, so there is no reason to break his legs.

耶稣已经死了,所以没有必要打断祂的腿。

Instead, perhaps to make sure that Jesus was truly dead, the soldier pierced his side with a spear, and immediately blood and water came out.

但或许为了确定祂真的死了,士兵拿枪刺进祂的肋旁,血与水就流了出来。

All of these things, even when Jesus hangs lifeless, occur in fulfillment of Scripture.

当耶稣毫无气息地挂在十架上的同时,这些事情就应验了经上的话。

That's what John explicitly says in verse 36 - “These things came to pass, that the Scripture might be fulfilled.”

这就是约翰在36节清楚讲的,“这些事成了,为要应验经上的话。”

What Scripture is that?

到底是那一段经文呢?

Psalm 34 is a psalm of David about God's deliverance of the righteous man.

诗篇34篇是一篇大卫所写关于神拯救义人的经文。

In verse 19-20 of that psalm he rejoices, “Many are the afflictions of the righteous; but the Lord delivers him out of them all. He keeps all of his bones; not one of them is broken.”

在这一篇的19-20节,他喜乐地说:“义人多有苦难,但耶和华救他脱离这一切,又保全他一身的骨头,连一根也不折断。”

No doubt John remembers this psalm, but there is another passage too – all the way back in Exodus 12:46: “It is to be eaten in a single house; you shall not take any of the flesh outside the house, and you shall not break any of its bones.”

约翰毫无疑问记得这段诗篇。但另外一节经文也描述了此刻的情景,就是在出埃及记12:46,“应当在一个房子里吃;不可把一点肉从房子里带到外头去。羊羔的骨头一根也不可折断。”

About what is God saying that the Israelites may not break its bones in that passage?

神说骨头一根也不可折断,是说什么呢?

It was written about the Passover lamb that was to be slain for their salvation.

说的就是那只为了使他们可以得救而被献祭的逾越节羔羊。

And no doubt, on this special day, John remembers this too.

毫无疑问,在这个特别的日子里约翰也想起了这段经文。

 

What does this tell us?

这告诉我们甚么呢?

That Jesus was a righteous man, he was without blemish as a sacrifice, and even after he passed away God saw to it that it would remain clear that Jesus is the Passover Lamb, and that “Christ, our Passover Lamb, has been sacrificed” (1 Cor. 5:7).

就是耶稣是个义人,祂是毫无瑕疵的祭牲并在祂死后,神也确保人们会清楚地明白耶稣就是那逾越节的羔羊: “我们逾越节的羔羊基督已经被杀献祭了。”(哥林多前书5:7

And what does that mean?

这代表甚么呢?

It means that those for whom he was slain are now saved.

这代表那些祂为之而被宰杀的人,现在得救了

And we must come to Christ to be sprinkled with his blood.

而我们必须来到基督面前,使祂的血可以洒在我们身上。

It wasn't just a lamb, it was blood of the Lamb of God, the first born Son of God that took away the sin of the world.

这不是一只普通的羔羊,而是神羔羊的宝血,那位除去世人罪孽的神子。

See Jesus didn't just die – he was sacrificed for sinners as the Passover Lamb.

耶稣不单单只是死去而已——祂为了罪人成了逾越节点羔羊,被献为祭了。

And what happens even after his death testifies to that.

祂死后所发生的事也为此作见证。

So when we see this, when we remember this, we must remember that Christ died to cover us, and we must seek our salvation in his blood.

所以当我们明白这点,当我们想起这事我们应该记得基督为了覆庇我们而死,所以我们必须在祂的宝血里寻找我们的救赎。

Does this not increase your faith?

这是否加添了你的信心呢?

 

And this happened in such a way that Jesus was not broken, but pierced, which is in fulfillment of another Scripture – Zechariah 12:10.

耶稣被刺、但没有任何一根骨头被折断,也是为了要应验另一段经文:撒迦利亚书12:10

But let me go back a couple chapters so we see the context.

不过,且让我们回到更前面的章节来了解整个背景。   

In Zech. 9:9 it says, “Behold, your king is coming to you; he is just and endowed with salvation, humble, and mounted on a donkey.”

撒迦利亚书9:9 说:“看哪,你的王来到你这里!他是公义的,并且施行拯救,谦谦和和地骑着驴。”

That happened a week ago, when Jesus entered Jerusalem.

一个星期前,当耶稣上耶路撒冷城时就是这样的景况。

Zech. 11:13 says, “Then the Lord said to me, 'throw it to the potter, that magnificent price at which I was valued by them.' So I took the thirty pieces of silver and threw them to the potter in the house of the Lord.”

撒迦利亚书11:13 “那时,耶和华对我说:‘你要把银子丢给陶匠。’那银子就是他们认为我应得的高价。我就拿了那三十块银子,在耶和华的殿里丢给陶匠了。”

 

That happened last night and this morning, when Judas betrayed Jesus for 30 pieces of silver, which he threw back to the priests in the temple, who then used it to buy the Potter's field.

这事在昨夜与今晨发生了:犹大把背叛耶稣所得来的30块银币丢回给殿里的祭司,他们就拿了这些钱买了陶匠的一块地。

And now in Zech. 12:10 God says, “...they will look on Me whom they have pierced; and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son.”

撒迦利亚书12:10,“他们必仰望我,就是他们所刺的;他们要为他哀哭,好像丧独生子。”

That happens at this moment.

这就是此刻正在发生的事。

Only five verses later, Zechariah (13:1) writes, “In that day a fountain will be opened for the house of David and for the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for impurity.”

撒迦利亚书131节写到:“到那日,必有一个泉源,为大卫家和耶路撒冷的居民开放,洗除他们的罪恶和不洁。”

And that may happen at this moment too.

这可能也是此刻正在进行的。

It's hard to say exactly the significance of the water and the blood that flows from Jesus' side - obviously it shows that Jesus was truly human and truly dead -  but I think John must remember as he writes this (Heb. 9:19-20) that Moses so long ago sprinkled the people with blood and water and said, “This is the blood of the covenant.”

我们很难明确地解释基督肋旁流出的血与水的重要性究竟是甚么——但这显然说明耶稣是人,并且此刻他的确死了——在很久之前摩西曾用血和水洒在人民身上,说:“这血就是神与你们立约的凭据。”(来919-20)约翰写这段时一定记得这点。

 

And Jesus just last night had held up the cup and said, “this cup which is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood” (Lk. 22:20).

耶稣在最后一晚,举起杯便说: “这杯是用我的血所立的新约,这血是为你们流的。”

And all the other times he speaks in this book that Jesus gives us his blood and living water so that we may be forgiven and have eternal life.

这卷书的其他地方说到耶稣给我们祂的宝血与活水,好让我们可以得赦免并得着永生。

This is a fountain that was opened up that day, for sin and impurity.

在那一天,这个泉源为了罪恶和不洁而打开了。

That's what we sing about when we sing “Rock of Ages, cleft for me” and “There is a fountain filled with blood.”

当我们唱“万古盘石为我开”,以及“有一血泉”,我们唱的就是这个。

And all these things would strengthen John's faith when he writes this, it strengthened doubting Thomas' faith when he put his hand in that hole in Christ's side a week and a half later, and cried out, “My Lord and My God!”

当使徒约翰记录这些事情时,他的信心就得着坚固。这些事也坚定了怀疑的多马的信心,并在一个多礼拜后,当多马把他的手探入基督的肋旁时,他喊出:“我的主!我的神!”

Do not all these things strengthen your faith too?

这些事是否也坚定了你的信心呢?

 

And after these things two men were emboldened to serve Jesus as well – Joseph or Arimathea and Nicodemus.

在这些事后,有两个人也鼓起勇气来服事耶稣——就是亚利马太人约瑟与尼哥底母。

Our passage here shows us that Joseph was a secret disciple of Jesus because he feared the Jews, and we know Nicodemus was fearful too – that's why John always mentions that he came to Jesus by night.

这里的经文告诉我们,约瑟是耶稣暗地里的门徒,因为他害怕犹太人。尼哥底母也害怕犹太人——这就是为什么约翰都提到他时,他都是在夜间拜访耶稣。

But now something changes in them.

但现在他们的心发生了改变。

Joseph, a member of the Sanhedrin and a rich man with much to lose, boldly goes to Pilate to requests Jesus' body.

约瑟是公会的一员,一个有财有势的人大胆地来到彼拉多面前领取耶稣的身体。

Nicodemus, an esteemed teacher of Israel, will purchase a great amount of spices to give Jesus an honorable burial.

尼哥底母,一个备受尊崇的以色列人的教师,会买大量的香料来为耶稣预备一个荣耀的葬礼。

They will risk their reputation, they will spend considerable wealth, and they will touch a dead body before Passover to honor him.

他们会冒着名誉扫地的风险,花掉大量的财富,并在逾越节前触碰尸体,只为了要荣耀耶稣。

Joseph will give up his own tomb to bury the Lord, a nearby, new garden tomb in which no one had been laid.

约瑟让出自己的墓穴来埋葬主,一个在邻近园子中、从未葬过人的墓穴。

And that, in God's providence, would give them greater assurance that it was Jesus who was raised.

在神的摄理中,这点也给了他们更大的确据,就是耶稣的确复活了。

And so Isaiah 53:9 was fulfilled as well, “His grave was assigned with wicked men, yet He was with a rich man in his death, because he had done no violence, nor was there any deceit in his mouth.”

因此以赛亚书539节也得着了应验:“他虽然未行强暴,口中也没有诡诈,人还使他与恶人同埋;谁知死的时候与财主同葬。”

Thus it is all fulfilled.

所以这完全应验了。

And while Christ's spirit is in his Father's hands in paradise, God still demonstrates his care for His dear Son's lifeless body, and provides for him and keeps it from undergoing decay.

并且当基督的灵魂在天上,在天父手中时,神依然关爱祂儿子那没有气息的身体,供应祂并保护祂不受朽坏。

If God will care for Christ's lifeless body so richly, I hope you will remember, brothers and sisters, that God will care for the living, mystical body of Christ too?

如果神如此关爱基督没有气息的身体弟兄姊妹们,我希望你们可以记得,神也会关爱基督活着的肢体。

By that I mean you, the church – you are his body here on earth even while our Savior is in heaven.

我说的正是你们基督的教会——即使我们的救主现在在天上,你们仍是祂在地上的肢体。

You belong to Jesus Christ.

你们属于耶稣基督。

And God loves him so much.

而神爱祂如此地深。

He loves you too, and he will care for you while you live, he will watch over your bodies after you die, and he will raise you again one day.

祂也爱你,祂会在你活着的时候照顾你,在你死后也会看顾你的身体,并且有一天会使你复活。

Not even death will be able to separate you from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.

连死亡也无法把我们与神在我主耶稣基督里的爱隔绝。

And brothers and sisters, I hope that comforts you and builds your faith up too.

弟兄姊妹我希望这能使你们得着安慰并建立你们的信心。

 

And so, you who are so dearly loved by God, I want to also remind you and admonish you this morning to consider what it means that we were crucified with Christ, and that we were buried with him.

并且在座各位被神所深爱的人,今天早上我想要提醒并劝勉你们思考圣经上所讲的,我们与基督一同被钉十字架、与祂一同埋葬的意义。

For Paul, it meant that where Jesus is, there our hearts must be also.

对保罗来说耶稣在哪里我们的心就该在那里。

Christ has died to this world, he has been buried.

对这个世界来说,基督死了也被埋葬了。

This present world, the empty promises it offers you, the sin that so easily entangles us – it is to be, as it were, dead and buried in the ground for us.

现今的世界所提供的虚空的应许与容易绊倒我们的罪孽——应该对我们来说如同死了被埋了一般。

How could our hope for life and happiness be in this present age when our Leader is in the coming age?

若我们的领袖是在那未来的世代我们怎能期望在这个世得着快乐与生命呢?

How could we cling to earth as our lasting home when our Father home is in heaven?

若我们天父的家在天上,我们怎能紧抓着地上,把它当作我们永恒的居所呢?

How could we continue to live in sin if we have died to it?

我们在罪上死了的人,岂可仍在罪中活着呢?

I don't have all the time this morning to explain that much more, but I urge you to reflect on it today – what does it mean for your goals and hopes and really, where your treasure and heart is, if our Lord's break with this present evil age has already occurred?

我们今天早上没有足够的时间来深入探讨这一点,但我鼓励你们来思考——如果我们的主已经斩断了与现今邪恶的世代的关系这对你的目标与希望有甚么影响?因为,你们的财宝在哪里,你们的心也在那里。

Are we not also then to keep seeking the things above, where Christ is?

我们不是应该继续寻求基督现在所在的那些天上的事呢?

Are we not also to consider that our citizenship is in heaven, and that here we have no lasting city?

我们是否也应该思想,我们是天上的公民在地上我们没有永远长存的城?

Are we not to live holy lives, knowing that we belong to a holy, heavenly family?

我们是不是应该活出圣洁的生活,因为我们知道我们属于一个圣洁的、属天的家庭。

Are we not to run this race with endurance, and fix our eyes on Jesus, the Author and Perfecter of our faith?

我们不是也应该以坚忍的心奔跑那摆在我们面前的赛程;专一注视耶稣,就是我们信心的创始成终者?

Christ is our life; to live is Christ, to die is gain.

基督是我们的生命;活着就是基督,死了就有益处。

If then we have been buried with him, we must consider that our fundamental break with this world has already occurred.

如果我们已经与祂一同埋葬,我们必须视我们斩断与这个世界的关系已经发生了。

The empty hope it holds out for others is not for you.

那诱惑他人的虚空盼望,并不会引诱你。

It is all lost and buried so that you may gain Christ, and to know that surpassing value of knowing Christ Jesus our Lord.

这一切都已被丢弃并且已被埋葬,好让你可以在基督里得益处,并且以认识主基督耶稣为至宝。

 

Christ Jesus was buried.

基督耶稣被埋了。

And how then can we consider the grave so bad anymore?

因此我们怎么还能把坟墓看为是不好的呢?

Where is its sting?

死亡的毒钩在哪儿呢?

Where is its victory?

它得胜的权势呢?

It has been defeated.

它已经被击败了。

Jesus was there, wrapped up in pleasant spices in a garden.

耶稣被包裹在香料中,放到一个园子里。

And by his presence he has transformed every Christian grave into a perfumed garden bed.

因此所有基督徒的坟墓,都变成充满香气的花园。

From now on rarely will the Bible say that believers die, but that they fall asleep in the Lord, because it is just for a short while.

从此刻起,圣经就很少写到信众们死了。经文会说:“他们在主里睡着了” ,因为这只是短暂的片刻。

The spirit of every brother and sister we've lost is in God's hands in Paradise, and their bodies are under his watchful, merciful, sovereign care.

离开我们的每位弟兄姊妹的灵魂,现在在天上,在神的手中,而他们的身体也正受到祂的看顾、怜悯与全能的看顾。

Though their perishable bodies are buried like seeds, they will again spring up to imperishable life, when the voice of the Son of God calls us and wakes us up again from our slumber – as one great preacher has said, when we meet our Savior in the early dawn of that eternal Sabbath that awaits all the people of God.

一个大布道家曾经这样描述那所有在等候神的百姓的永恒安息日:虽然他们那可以被毁坏的身体如同种子般被埋了,但当神子呼召我们,把我们从沉睡中唤醒时他们会发芽生长,生出无法永远毁坏的生命。

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